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78 Cards in this Set

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Loire Valley climate
Cool Maritime climate becoming more Continental further inland. Subject to late frosts, cold winds, and variable summers. Vineyards lie between 47º and 48º. The Loire is the last wild river in Europe, and the water level can vary by several yards within a few days.
Location of the Loire Valley?
West Central France. The region is wide and follows the Loire river, starting in the Auvergne and Massif Central and finishing in the Atlantic coast around Nantes city.
region-wide ACs of the Loire Valley
Crémant de Loire AC
Rosé de Loire AC
Crémant de Loire AC
Can be made from wines from Anjou, Cheverny, Saumur Mousseux, and Touraine ACs, or a blend of them. Sparkling white and rosé, dry to semi-sweet from Chenin Blanc, Cabernet Franc, Cabernet Sauvignon, Arbois (Menu Pineau), Chardonnay, Grolleau Gris, Grolleau Noir, Pineau d’Aunis, and Pinot Noir.
Rosé de Loire AC
Dry, light- to medium-bodied rosé from min. 30% Cab/Cab, plus Gamay, Grolleau, Pineau d’Aunis, and Pinot Noir.

(30 Cab/Cab; Gamay, Grolleau, Pineau, Pinot)

Introduced in 1974 to exploit the international success of Rosé d’Anjou.
Pay Nantais-
Location: Western coastal section of the Loire. Occupies parts of the Loire-Atlantique and the Maine-et-Loire départements.
Climate: Mild, damp, temperate climate – not too severe. Summers are warm and sunny, but often rainy. Winters can be harsh. Important tributaries include Allier, Cher, Indre, Creuse, Maine, Sèvre Nantaise.
Soil: Best are light and stony, and provide good drainage.
Varieties: Melon de Bourgogne (aka Gamay Blanc), Folle Blanche, Cabernet Franc, Cabernet Sauvignon, Gamay, Gamay de Chaudenay, Gamay de Bouze, Negrette, Pinot Noir, Groslot Gris, Chardonnay, Chenin Blanc.
Vini: Max 12% abv. • High acidity is maintained.
• The extended lees contact can leave a faint prickle of natural carbonic gas in the wine, making it further refreshing.
Why does Melon de Bourgogne work well in the Pay Nantais?
Melon de Bourgogne is an early-ripening, relatively neutral variety, frost-resistant and adapts well to damp conditions. Traditionally harvested very early, but at the expense of a lack of fruit development in the grapes. Given the weather, it is a significant risk to wait and pick riper grapes.
Muscadet AC
Pay Nantais. The basic appellation that covers the whole Muscadet area. Max yield is 65 hl/ha. 9-12% abv. 100% Melon de Bourgogne.

Vine training: Guyot
Muscadet des Coteaux de la Loire AC
In the Pay Nantais. This is the most northern wine area on the French coast. Fairly simple wines. Can be the best of the Muscadets in very hot years. Less clay and more limestone soils.
Muscadet Côtes de Grand Lieu AC
In the Pay Nantais. Given AC status in 1994. Previously represented 73% of the basic Muscadet appellation. Few wines merit the separate appellation.
Muscadet de Sèvre-et-Maine AC
In the Pay Nantais. Whites only from Melon de Bourgogne. Accounts for 80% of production of Muscadet. One of the largest AOCs in France. About 45% of the wines are bottled sur lie. Max yield is 55 hl/ha.
Muscadet Sur Lie AC
In the Pay Nantais. Since 1994 this term can only be applied to Muscadet from either Côteaux de la Loire, Côtes de Grandlieu, or Sèvre-et-Maine. Wines must remain in contact with the sediment over the winter. May not be bottled before the third week of March. Only one racking permitted – to remove the wine from its gross lees – is permitted; no filtering is allowed. Must be bottled directly off the fine lees before November 30th of the year after the harvest in the cellar in which the wine was made. 55 hl/ha.
Gros Plant du Nantais VDQS
In the Pay Nantais. Secondary wine made from Folle Blanche in the same zone as Muscadet. Gros Plant is the local synonym for Folle Blanche. Extremely high acidity and coarse flavors.
Coteaux d’Ancenis VDQS
Officially Anjou wine. Reds, whites, rosés. Northeast of Nantes; intersected by the Loire river. Most of this land is also authorized for making Muscadet Côteaux de la Loire and Gros Plant du Pays Nantais.

Reds and rosés from Gamay and Cab/Cab

Whites from Pinot Gris (Malvoisie) and Chenin Blanc.
Fief Vendéens VDQS
Pay Nantais. Red, white, and rosé.

Reds and Rosé: Min. 50% Gamay & Pinot Noir, plus Cab/Cab, Negrette, and max. 15% Gamay de Chaudenay.

Whites from min. 50% Chenin, plus Sauv. Blanc and Chardonnay.

Promoted from vin de pays to VDQS in 1984.

The only red wine officially produced in Pays Nantais.
Location: West-central district with mostly left-bank vineyards. In-between Pays Nantais and Touraine. Vineyards lie almost entirely in the Maine-et-Loire département. Largest of the four main Loire regions. Often referred to as Anjou-Saumur, recognizing the important subregion of Saumur in the eastern part of the region.
Climate: Gentle Atlantic influence with light rainfall, warm summers, and mild falls, but frost is a problem in Savennières. Humid climate with no real extremes.
Soil: Schist soils in west, with limestone chalk and tufa in the east.
Varieties: Chenin Blanc (AKA Pineau de la Loire), Cabernet Franc, Gamay, Grolleau; Some Chardonnay, Sauvignon Blanc, Cabernet Sauvignon, Malbec, Pineau d’Aunis.
Grapes without noble rot that are left on the vine, but cut off from the vine's metabolic system. The warmth of the day followed by the cold of the night causes the grapes to dehydrate and concentrate.
Anjou AC
Anjou. Reds, white, rose.

Reds from Cabernet Franc, Cabernet Sauvignon, and Pineau d’Aunis.

Whites from Chenin Blanc, plus max 20% Chardonnay and Sauvignon Blanc.

Rose from Cab/Cab, Gamay, Grolleau, Malbec, Pineau d'Aunis.
Anjou-Villages AC
Located in Anjou. Red wines from Cabernet Franc and Cabernet Sauvignon. Occupies 56 communes.
Anjou-Villages-Brissac AC
Located in Anjou. AC in 1998. Red wines from Cabernet Franc and Cabernet Sauvignon.
Anjou-Gamay AC
Located in Anjou. AC in 1999. Reds and rosés from Gamay Noir à Jus Blanc.
Rosé d’Anjou AC
Anjou. Off-dry to sweet rosés from Cabernet Franc, Cabernet Sauvignon, Gamay, Grolleau, Pineau d’Aunis & Côt.

(Cab, Cab, Gamay, Grolleau, Pineau, Côt)
Rosé de Loire AC
Located in Anjou. Dry rosés made from min. 30% Cabernet Franc and Cabernet Sauvignon, plus Gamay, Grolleau, Pineau d'Aunis, and Pinot Noir.

(30% Cab,Cab; plus Gamay, Grolleau, Pineau, Pinot)
Cabernet d’Anjou AC
Located in Anjou. Dry rosés made from Cabernet Franc and Cabernet Sauvignon.
Cabernet de Saumur AC
Located in Anjou. Dry to semi-dry rosés made from Cabernet Franc and Cabernet Sauvignon.
Savennières AC
Anjou. Wines on the four southeast-facing slopes of volcanic debris. Dry white from 100% Chenin Blanc. The single best wine is considered Joly’s Clos de la Coulée de Serrant. Over past 15 years, some growers have resurrected the semi-sweet style that used to be popular in first half of the 20th century.

Rendement moyen (1992-2001): 36 hl/ha

Rendement de base: 50 hl/ha-vins sec
40 hl/ha-vins demi-secs
Grand Crus of Savennières AC
•Coulée de Serrant: is one of the few single estate ACs in France. It is comprised of 7 ha on a perfectly situated vineyard of slate and schist. Originally planted by the Cistercian monks around 1130. Has been a monopole of the Joly family of Château de la Roche-aux-Moines since the 1960s. Nicolas Joly has been in charge since 1977.
•Roche-aux-Moines is 17 ha and owned by three producers: Joly of Chateau de la Roche-aux-Moines, Pierre and Yves Soulez of Chateau de Chamboureau, and Madame Laroche of au Moines.
Coteaux du Layon AC
Anjou. Semi-sweet to sweet, sometimes botrytis-affected Chenin-based wines harvested in tries. Several of the best villages are entitled to attach their names, e.g. Rochefort-sur-Loire. 30 hl/ha. Min 12º alcohol. Min. R.S. 34 g/l. Villages: Beaulieu, Rablay, St. Aubin, Faye, Rochefort, St. Lambert.

2 Grand Crus here: Bonnezeaux AC and Quarts-de-Chaume AC.
Bonnezeaux AC
Located in Anjou. A Grand Cru of the Coteaux du Layon. Grown on three south-facing slopes of the commune of Thouarcé in the Coteaux du Layon. Minimum R.S. of 34 g/l. Intensely sweet, richer, and more full-bodied than Quarts-de-Chaume. Max yield 25 hl/ha. Black schist soils.
Quarts-de-Chaume AC
Anjou. A Grand Cru of the Coteaux du Layon. Grown on the plateau behind the village of Chaume in the Coteaux du Layon commune of Rochefort-sur-Loire. Minimum R.S. of 34 g/l. Semi-sweet to sweet. Because Quarts-de-Chaume is from a more northerly area, it is usually slightly lighter-bodied and is a little less sweet than Bonnezeaux. Max yield 25 hl/ha. 238 g/L.
Chaume AC
Located in Anjou. As of 2006, a distinct appellation from AOC Coteaux du Layon. The region produces sweet white Chenin-based wines that are affected by passerillage. Max 25 hl/ha.
Coteaux de l’Aubance AC
Anjou. Sweet whites from Chenin. Wines are made from old vines grown on the schistous banks of Aubance River. Min. R.S. 34 g/l. Min. 230 g/l; 294 g/l for SGN.
Saumur AC
An eastern subappellation of the Anjou. Its wines may be sold as Anjou, but not vice-versa. Saumur is the Loire’s sparkling wine center and France’s largest sparkling wine center outside of Champagne.

Reds from Cabernet Franc, Cabernet Sauvignon, and Pineau d’Aunis.

Whites from min. 80% Chenin Blanc and max of 20% Chardonnay and Sauvignon Blanc.
Saumur-Champigny AC
The vineyards southeast of Saumur that are entitled to add the village name of Champigny produce some of the best red wines in the Loire. The reds are dry, full-bodied wines with distinct raspberry and plummy notes made from Cabernet Franc, Cabernet Sauvignon, and Pineau d’Aunis. Soils here are a harder limestone, and retain heat much better, and so produce much riper grapes.
Grape Varieties:
Appellation Notes:
Location: East of Anjou-Saumur, west of Le Centre. Most vineyards lie in the département of Indre-et-Loire.
Climate: Less maritime than Nantes or Anjou-Saumur. Protected from northerly winds by the Côteaux du Loir (a tributary of the Loire River). Warm summer, low October rainfall.
Soils: •Clay and limestone over tufa subsoil around Vouvray and Mountlouis. •Tufa is chalk boiled by volcanic action, and is full of minerals and retains water. Predominant soil in the area. •Gravelly soils are prominent in the better areas for reds.
Grape Varieties: Chenin Blanc, Cab Franc (aka Breton), Cab Sauv., Gamay, Sauv. Blanc, Chard., Romorantin, Pinot Noir.
Vini: White fermentation is at low temperatures and can last weeks for dry wines; months for sweeter styles. Some Chinon et al. can see some oak, but never a significant amount of new oak.
Appellation Notes: Western section is known for reds, and eastern section is known for whites.
Touraine AC
A large catch-all AC covering:

Whites from Chenin, SB, max. 20% Chard.

Reds and rosés from Cab/Cab, Gamay, Malbec, Pineau d'Aunis, Pinot Noir, Pinot Meunier, Pinot Gris. Sold as varietal wines. Three sectors of the area can add their name to the appellation:
-Touraine-Amboise AC
-Touraine-Azay Le Rideau AC
-Touraine-Mesland AC
Chinon AC
Touraine. Reds and rosés from Cabernet Franc, max. 10% Cabernet Sauvignon. Best wines come from the chalky, limestone slopes.

Some rosé and a tiny amount of white wine is made from Chenin Blanc.
Bourgueil AC
Touraine. Reds and rosés. Mostly gravel soils with some tuffeau on the higher slopes. Cab Franc with up to 10% Cabernet Sauvignon.
St.-Nicolas-de-Bourgueil AC
Touraine. Reds, some rosé and a small amount of rosé. Within the commune of Bourgueil.

Cab Franc + max. 10% Cab. Sauv.
Vouvray AC
Located in the Touraine District. Made from Chenin Blanc (technically may allow Arbois as well). Soil is largely siliceous clay or calcareous clay. The best terrains are known as the perruches, and consist of large amounts of flint. The second-best terrains are of aubuis, a purer limestone. Wines can range from dry (sec) to off-dry (demi-sec) to sweet (moelleux), depending on vintage. Sparkling wines are also made. Specific tuffeau soils are significant. Vouvray has many lieux-dits, and most are monopoles. There are 3 ACs here: Vouvray, Vouvray Mousseux, and Vouvray Pétillant.
Montlouis-sur-Loire AC
Located in the Touraine District. This appellation was renamed Montlouis-sur-Loire from November 2003. White wines from Chenin Blanc that are similar to Vouvray. Three ACs: Montlouis-sur-Loire, Montlouis-sur-Loire Mousseux, & Montlouis-sur-Loire Pétillant.
‘The Loir’
Located in the Touraine District. The Loir is a tributary to the Loire River. There are two important ACs:
●Jasnières AC-Dry Chenin Blanc wines from the best area of the Coteaux du Loir. In really hot years, can have a richness that even compares with Savennières.
●Coteaux du Loir AC-Similar to Jasnières (dry whites from Chenin), but also reds and rosés (from Pineau d’Aunis, Gamay, and Cab Franc) as well. Adjoins the Coteaux Vendomois commune.
Cheverny AC
Touraine. Reds, whites, and rosés. Usually marketed as a varietal wine.

Reds and rosés: Gamay, Pinot Noir, Cabernet Franc, and Malbec.

Whites from Sauvignon Blanc, Chenin, Arbois, and max. 20% Chard.
Cour-Cheverny AC
Located in the Touraine District. Unique white wine from the Romorantin grape.
Valencay AC
Touraine District.

Reds from Gamay, Cabernet Franc, Malbec, and Pinot Noir.

Whites from Sauvignon Blanc, Arbois, and Chardonnay.

AOC as of 2003.
Coteaux du Vendômois AC
Touraine District. Reds, whites, rosés.

Red: Min. 40% Pineau d'Aunis, plus 10-40% Gamay, Pinot Noir, Cabernet Franc, with a max. of 20% Gamay reducing to 10% in 2016.

White: Chenin Blanc, max 20% Chardonnay.

Rosé: Pineau d'Aunis

AOC status 2001.
Touraine-Noble Joué AC
Touraine. Rosé only AC.

Rosé from min. 40% Pinot Meunier, min. 20% Pinot Gris, min. 10% Pinot Noir.

AC as of 2001.
Le Centre-
Grape Varieties:
Location: The most easterly vineyards of the Loire are situated in the center of France, chiefly in the départements of Cher, Nièvre, and Indre.
Climate: More continental than areas closer to the sea. Summers are shorter and hotter and winters are longer and colder. Spring frosts and hail are particular hazards in Pouilly.
Soil: Soils are dominated by clay or limestone, topped with gravel and flinty pebbles.
Grape Varieties: Sauvignon Blanc (aka Blanc Fumé), Pinot Noir. Also: Chasselas, Pinot Blanc, Pinot Gris, Cab Franc, Chenin Blanc, Gamay.
Vini: Traditionally inert oak casks and stainless steel. Some new oak is now creeping in (e.g., Dagueneau.)Appellation Notes: Smallest production of the main 4 regions of the Loire.
Sancerre AC
Le Centre. Best vineyards are on the series of southeast- and southwest-facing slopes. Several very good lieux-dits (Monts Damnés; Chêne Marchand). Production is 20% red and rosé from Pinot Noir. Well-drained, chalky soil rich in marine fossils. Three main soil types have been identified, all of which are essentially weathered versions of Kimmeridgian limestone. Chlorosis can be a problem.
•Terres Blanches: clayey marl; very similar to Chablis soils
•Caillottes: rubbly limestone
•Silex: flint
Pouilly-Fumé AC
Located in Le Centre. East bank of the Loire River. Similar soils to Sancerre, but with a slightly higher clay content. Characteristic ‘gun flint’ aromas are supposed to be present in wines where grapes have been grown on Silex soils.
Menetou-Salon AC
Located in Le Centre. High limestone content in soils.

Whites: Sauvignon Blanc

Reds and Rosés: Pinot Noir.
Quincy AC
Located in Le Centre. Whites only. Rustic and straightforward. These vineyards are planted on the left bank of the Cher and are situated on a gravelly plateau. The second winemaking area to receive AC status in France (after Châteauneuf-du-Pape). Similar to Pouilly-Fumé.
Reuilly AC
Located in Le Centre. Rosés, reds, and whites. High lime content in the soil.

Red: Pinot Noir, Pinot Gris

Whites: Sauvignon Blanc

Rosés: Pinot Gris, labelled simply as "Pinot".
Pouilly-sur-Loire AC
Located in Le Centre. Dry whites from the same area as Pouilly-Fumé, but made from Chasselas. Sauvignon Blanc is allowed for blending.
Coteaux du Giennois AC
Located in Le Centre. AC in 1998. Red, white and rosé.

Red and rosé: Gamay, Pinot Noir, neither may exceed 80% of the total blend.

White: Sauvignon Blanc.
Châteaumeillant VDQS
Borders the Cher and Indre (départements), south of Bourges, west of Saint-Pourçain. Only red-wine grapes are grown, but white used to be made here, and its production is still permitted.

Red and rosé from Gamay; Pinot Gris and Pinot Noir also permitted. Granite, schist, and sandstone soils.
Côtes d’Auvergne VDQS
Reds, whites, and rosés. South of Saint-Pourçain and west of Côtes du Forez. Most remote region that still falls within the Loire region.

Reds and Rosés: Gamay and Pinot Noir.

Whites: Chardonnay.
Côtes du Forez AC
Similar to Beaujolais. Adjacent to Lyons, west of Mâcon. Upgraded from VDQS in 2000. Reds and rosés from Gamay. Good co-op here. Scattered among 21 communes.
Côte Roannaise AC
Reds and rosés from a localized Gamay clone called Gamay Saint-Romain. Located west of the Maconnais.

Reds and Rosés: 100% Gamay (just Gamay Noir a Jus Blanc on INAO)

AC status 2006.
Orléans-Cléry AC
Restricted to red wines produced in Cléry-Saint-André and four neighboring villages (SW of Orléans).

Reds: min. 75% Cabernet Franc, plus Cabernet Sauvignon (planted before 2002).

AC status 2006.
Haut-Poitou VDQS
Varietally-labeled reds, whites, and rosés.

Reds: Gamay, Pinot Noir, Malbec, Cabernet Sauvignon, Cab Franc.

Whites: Sauvignon Blanc, Chardonnay, Pinot Blanc, Chenin Blanc.

80km SW of Tours; Not bordering but south of Saumur, Chinon.
St.-Pourçain VDQS
19 communes southeast of the Bourges appellations of the Central Vineyards in the Allier département, West of the Côte d’Or.

Reds and Rosés: Gamay, Pinot Noir, and Gamay Teinturier (max 10%).

Whites: max 50% Tresallier (aka Sacy in Chablis), max 10% Saint-Pierre-Doré, Aligoté, Chardonnay, and Sauvignon Blanc.
Vin du Thouarsais VDQS
South of Saumur.

Red: Cab Franc, Cab, Gamay

White: Chenin, max 20% Chardonnay
Pineau des Charentes AC
THIS IS NOT OFFICIALLY IN THE LOIRE REGION. A vin de liqueur produced in the Cognac region, which is between the Loire and Bordeaux. White and rosé vin de liqueur styles that are often dull, oxidative, and rancio with age. Cognac is blended with the new grape juice within hours of grapes pressing to produce Pineau des Charentes. Grapes must be very ripe in order to obtain grape juice that is rich in natural sugars. Pineau des Charentes is the result of stopping the fermentation of the grape juice by adding Cognac which must be min. 1 year old. Pineau des Charentes must contain between 16.5% to 22% alcohol.
Anjou Coteaux de la Loire AC
Located in Anjou. Rare, white only AC SW of Angers, right bank of the Loire river.. Sweet white wines from Chenin, min 221 g/L, with min 17 g/L in the finished wine.
Coteaux de Saumur AC
Located in Anjou-Saumur. Whites only from Chenin Blanc, semisweet.
Grand Crus of the Coteaux du Layon AC
Bonnezeaux AC and Quarts-de-Chaume AC
Jasnières AC
In Touraine. Dry whites from Chenin. The best area of the Coteaux du Loir, comparing with Savennières in hot years. Intersected by the Loir river.
Côteaux du Loir AC
Touraine. Reds, whites, rosé.

Dry whites from Chenin

Reds from Pineau d'Aunis, Cabernet, Gamay, Malbec.

Rosés from min. 25% Grolleau, plus Pineau, Cab, Gamay, and Malbec.

Intersected by the Loir river. Adjoins the Côteaux du Vendomois.
Touraine Amboise AC
Whites, reds and rosés from a cluster of eight villages surrounding and including Amboise. Vines are grown on both sides of the Loire adjacent to the Vouvray and Montlouis areas.

Reds: Min. 60% Gamay, 10-30% Cab Franc & Malbec

Whites: Min. 60% Chenin, max. 30% Sauv. Blanc, max. 15% Chard.
Touraine Azay-le-Rideau AC
Touraine. Whites and rosés from eight villages on each side of the Indre River, SW of Tours and east of Chinon.

Whites: Chenin

Rosé: Min. 60% Grolleau, plus Cab/Cab, Gamay, Malbec
Touraine Mesland AC
Reds, whites and rosés from the vineyards of Mesland and the five surrounding villages on the right bank of the Loire, east of Vouvray.

Reds: Min. 60% Gamay, 10-30 CF & Malbec, max 10% Cab until 2010

Whites: Min. 60% Chenin, max. 30% S.B., max. 15% Chard

Rosés: Min. 80% Gamay, plus CF & Malbec
Touraine Mousseux AC
Touraine Pétillant AC
Touraine Mousseux AC-Traditional method red, white, and rosé. Grapes for white and rosé can come from the entire Touraine AC, but those for red Touraine Mousseux may only come from Bourgueil, St.-Nicolas-de-Bourgueil, or Chinon.

Reds: Cabernet Franc

White: Chenin, Arbois, max. 20% Chard, combined max. 30% Cabernet, Pinot Noir, Pinot Gris, Pinot Meunier, Pineau d'Aunis, Malbec, and Grolleau.

Touraine Pétillant AC- Slightly effervescent red, white and rosé from same grapes as Touraine Mousseux.
Vouvray Mousseux AC
Vouvray Pétillant AC
Vouvray Mousseux AC- Sparkling wines from overripe grapes from Chenin Blanc and Arbois.
Vouvray Pétillant AC- Consisten semi-sparkling versions of Vouvray from Chenin Blanc and Arbois.
Côtes du Gien Cosne-sur-Loire AC
In Le Centre. Of the 16 communes that produce Coteaux du Giennois, only eight are entitled to add Cosne-sur-Loire to the appellation. Promoted in 1998. Reds, whites and rosés.

Reds and Rosés: Gamay and Pinot Noir, neither may exceed 80% of the blend.

Whites: Sauvignon Blanc
Vins de L'Orléanais VDQS
Located in Le Centre, around Orléans. Reds, whites and rosés.

Reds and Rosés: Pinot Noir, Pinot Meunier, and Cab Franc, often sold varietally.

Whites: Chardonnay (AKA Auvernat Blanc) and Pinot Gris (AKA Auvernat Gris).

The local specialty is a dry, light rosé known as Meunier Gris--an aromatic vin gris with a crisp, dry finish.
Loire Grape Synonyms:
-Cabernet Franc
-Chenin Blanc
-Folle Blanche
-Pinot Gris
-Arbois: Menu Pineau
-Cabernet Franc: Breton
-Chenin Blanc: Pineau de la Loire
-Chardonnay: Auvernat Blanc (Le Centre)
-Folle Blanche: Gros Plant
-Malbec: Côt
-Pinot Gris: Auvernat Gris (Le Centre); Malvoisie (Pay Nantais)
-Tressalier: Sacy (Chablis)
Maceration Pélliculaire
The maceration of white grapes for about 4-24 hours before pressing and fermentation, with the aim of increasing flavor, body, and aging potential. Denis Dubordieu reintroduced the technique for Bordeaux Blanc in the 1980s. Varieties most frequently processed with skin contact are Sémillon, Sauvignon Blanc, Melon de Bourgogne, and Riesling.

Sometimes used with Bordeaux Blanc, Muscadet in the Pay Nantais, Viognier in Condrieu, Sauvignon Blanc in NZ.