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53 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Slothful Induction
the conclusion of a strong inductive argument is denied despite the evidence to the contrary
Fallacy of Exclusion
evidence which would change the outcome of an inductive argument is excluded from consideration
a generalization is applied when circumstances suggest that there should be an exception
Converse Accident
an exception is applied in circumstances where a generalization should apply
Post Hoc
because one thing follows another, it is held to cause the other
Joint effect
one thing is held to cause another when in fact they are both the joint effects of an underlying cause
one thing is held to cause another, and it does, but it is insignificant compared to other causes of the effect
Wrong Direction
the direction between cause and effect is reversed
Complex Cause
the cause identified is only a part of the entire cause of the effect
Begging the Question
the truth of the conclusion is assumed by the premises
Irrelevant Conclusion
an argument in defense of one conclusion instead proves a different conclusion
Straw Man
the author attacks an argument different from (and weaker than) the opposition's best argument
the same term is used with two different meanings
the structure of a sentence allows two different interpretations
the emphasis on a word or phrase suggests a meaning contrary to what the sentence actually says
because the attributes of the parts of a whole have a certain property, it is argued that the whole has that property
because the whole has a certain property, it is argued that the parts have that property
Affirming the Consequent
any argument of the form: If A then B, B, therefore A
Denying the Antecedent
any argument of the form: If A then B, Not A, thus Not B
asserting that contrary or contradictory statements are both true
Fallacy of Four Terms
a syllogism has four terms
Undistributed Middle
two separate categories are said to be connected because they share a common property
Illicit Major
the predicate of the conclusion talks about all of something, but the premises only mention some cases of the term in the predicate
Illicit Minor
the subject of the conclusion talks about all of something, but the premises only mention some cases of the term in the subject
Fallacy of Exclusive Premises
a syllogism has two negative premises
Fallacy of Drawing an Affirmative Conclusion From a Negative Premise:
as the name implies
Existential Fallacy
a particular conclusion is drawn from universal premises
Subverted Support
The phenomenon being explained doesn't exist
Evidence for the phenomenon being explained is biased
The theory which explains cannot be tested
Limited Scope
The theory which explains can only explain one thing
Limited Depth
The theory which explains does not appeal to underlying causes
Too Broad
The definition includes items which should not be included
Too Narrow
The definition does not include all the items which should be included
Failure to Elucidate
The definition is more difficult to understand than the word or concept being defined
Circular Definition
The definition includes the term being defined as a part of the definition
Conflicting Conditions
The definition is self-contradictory
False Dilemma
two choices are given when in fact there are three options
From Ignorance
because something is not known to be true, it is assumed to be false
Slippery Slope
a series of increasingly unacceptable consequences is drawn
Complex Question
two unrelated points are conjoined as a single proposition
Appeal to Force
the reader is persuaded to agree by force
Appeal to Pity
the reader is persuaded to agree by sympathy
the reader is warned of unacceptable consequences
Prejudicial Language
value or moral goodness is attached to believing the author
a proposition is argued to be true because it is widely held to be true
Attacking the Person:
1. the person's character is attacked
2. the person's circumstances are noted
3. the person does not practise what is preached
Appeal to Authority
1. the authority is not an expert in the field
2. experts in the field disagree
3. the authority was joking, drunk, or in some other way not being serious
Anonymous Authority
the authority in question is not named
Style Over Substance
the manner in which an argument (or arguer) is presented is felt to affect the truth of the conclusion
Hasty Generalization
the sample is too small to support an inductive generalization about a population
Unrepresentative Sample
the sample is unrepresentative of the sample as a whole
False Analogy
the two objects or events being compared are relevantly dissimilar