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87 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
  • 3rd side (hint)
The three basic sources of conscious knowing are
1) direct experience
2) faith
3) reason
Define Logic
Logic is the scientific understanding of how reasoning correctly works.
Parmenides around what year was the first philosopher to distinguish between these two types of objects
-500 BC
-scientific knowledge of unchanging truth
-non-scientific knowledge of transitory fact
Aristotle, around what year, wrote this famous treatise
-350 BC
-Prior and Posterior Analytics
Provide a description of the Modern Era
-Analysis + Mathematics = Modern Scientific Methodology
Give their views on Mathematics:
1) Plato
2) Aristotle
3) Rene Descartes
1) Plato believed math existed as an unchanging substance outside our universe. So it was impressed on our memory before birth, or innate.
2) We acquired math through abstraction from physical world around us.
3) Rene Originally believed math is simply fiction of our mind
Aristotle argued there are three main ways of argumentation/ to arrive at a conclusion:
1) Demonstration - yields scientific conclusions
2) Dialectics - provides merely probable results (every day life)
3) Rhetoric - emotional appeal
-Three basic operations in our mind

-Physical expression related to the operation
1) Abstraction - the process of grasping something of the specific nature of an object. -Product is Concept -Expression is a Term.
2) Judgment - relating concepts to reality. -Propositions
3) Reason - reaching new judgments. - Syllogism
Univocal Term
Applies same meaning to two or more objects:

I am tall. She is tall.
Equivocal Term
Applies different meaning to different objects.

Sam is gay. Will is gay.
Analogical Term
Term used of different objects with a meadning which is not the same, but related or similar

The climate of Arizona is healthy. My parrot is healthy.
Collective vs Non-Collective Term

1) The articles in this box weight over 20 lbs
2) Diamonds are expensive
3) Members of the Boston Ballet create an outstanding ensemble
1) Collective
2) Non-collective
3) Collective
Words often have more than one meaning. The mistake of equivocation consists in the use of a word in an inconsistent way.

ex: All banks are beside rivers.
The error of structuring a proposition so that grammatically it can be taken in more than one way

Ex: Thief found by tree
High School drop-outs cut in half.
Mistakenly concluding that what is true of each part must be true of the whole.

ex: The human race will disappear from Earth, for each human dies.
Ex: Eating one chip won't make you fat, so eating chips daily won't either.

Humans are made up of invisible cells, so humans must be invisible.
Mistakenly concluding what is true of the whole must be true of each separate part.

Ex: John's relay team won the 200 Medley, so John must have the fastest 200 IM. - False.

ex: The Universe, which is made of atoms, has existed has billions of years. So all atoms must have been around for billions of years.
Misrepresenting meaning by altering tone

ex: I resent that letter
Failure to realize that facts change over time / in different context

"I killed him" - in a video game
Mistaken Literalness
The mistake of taken a figure of speech as a literal expression

ex: I could murder him when he acts like that/
ex: Preach from the housetops.
Treating an abstraction (or an idea) as though it were a person

ex: You are in good hands with Allstate
Sweeping Generalization
Assume what is true under certain conditions must be true under all conditions

ex: Hurting another person is bad; therefore dentists commit bad acts.
Hasty Generalization
Presuming what you saw you be true from insufficient information

ex: A girl walked into me in broad day light, she must have been drunk
Begging the Question
Simply restating in another form what was already proven

Ex: Miracles are impossible for they cannot happen
Loaded Words
words with contention (or opposition)

-The name of the gun was the Peacekepper
False Analogy
Distorting the Facts - a comparison in which the two things do not resemble each other, so it is invalid.

ex: A corporate tax hike... what?
False Cause
Distorting the Facts - falsely presuming that because things coincide or follow that one is the cause of the other
False association
artificially arranged facts presented as "natural"

ex: Michael Phelps in Subway commercial
ex: Hot women in cigarette commercial
Appeal to the
Other Emotions
Mistakes of irrelevance
The study of the NATURE of a language
The study of the EVOLUTION of languages
The ORIGIN of words
The science dealing with the CORRECT USE of words
The ORDER of words
the MEANING of words
Word selection / choice
The science of Pronunciation
The speaking of words (accent and inflection)
Alteration of syllables and sound, changes word meaning
The clarity of articulation
5 types of expressions that cannot be included in a syllogism:
1) Emotive - feeling or desire
2) Imperative - an order or command
3) Fictive - made up
4) Interrogatory - a question
5) Peformatory - declaration "I will"
Determine the mood of each proposition:

Not all inexplicable events are miraculous.
Mountain climbing is a good hobby.
No man is an island.
Some men are impatient for night.
Others are hopeless pessimists.
Draw the Square of Opposition
Contradictory Propositions
(A-O) (E-I)

Contradictory Prop. cannot both be true, and they cannot both be false.
Contrary Propositions

-Contraries cannot both be true.
-They can both be false. However, if one is given as false, the other will be doubtful.
Subcontrary Propositions

-Subcontraries can both be true
-They cannot both be false
Subaltern Propositions
(A-I) (E-O)

-The universal is the subalternant, the particular is the subalternate. Together called subalterns
-It is valid to say if A is true then I is true, but not valid to go opposite direction.
Square of Opposition Practice

Given as false: Some events are uncaused.
Given I- False

E - True
A - False
O - True
Statement is made to state the same meaning in opposite form.

Contradict the copula
Contradict the predicate
Kinds of Obversion
All skilifts are uncomfortable.
No skilifts are comfortable.

Some sayings are not the kind that make sense.
Some sayings are nonsensical.
Subject and predicate are exchanged in a manner in which the statement still has an equivalent meaning.
Kinds of Conversion
All science is organized - Some organized knowledge is scientific.

No scientist is an ignorant person - No ignorant person is a scientist.


O cannot be converted!
Partial Contraposition

A-E; E-I; O-I
Full Contraposition
Obvert - Affirm to Neg / Neg to Affirm
Convert - Switch order of sentence
Obvert - Affirm to Neg / Neg to Affirm

A-A; E-O; O-O
Sample Contraposition

1) All imaginative persons are resourceful

2) No finite being is perfect

3) Some involuntary act is not deliberate.
1) All unresourceful persons are unimaginative

2) Some imperfect being is not infinite.

3) Something indeliberate is not a voluntary act


I and O propositions cannot be inverted
Direct Process of Inversion
Contradict both of the original terms and leave them in original positions

(A) All inattentive students are undeserving of good marks.
(I) Some attentive students are deserving of good marks.

(E) No mature person is unstable.
(O) Some immature person is not stable.
1) Nature
2) Stipulated

1) A tuna is a fish - T by nature
2) Sophomores live in Walsh - T stipulated

This is warm. - T contigent
The Four Figures of a Syllogism
Figure 1

Figure 2
Figure 3

Figure 4
Quantity of the Four Moods

A - UP

E - UU

I - PP

O - PU
Counting Up
All houses on this block are split-level.
My house is on the block
My house is split level
Collective - Noncollective Fallacy

Our class is intelligent
I am a member of our class
I am intelligent
The 6 rules of a syllogism
1) The syllogism should consist of no more than three terms
2) The middle term must be universal in at least one premise
3) No term which is particular in a premise may be made universal in the conclusion
4) No conclusion can be drawn from two negative premises
5) Two affirmative premises require an affirmative conclusion
6) A negative premise requires a negative conclusion
Two Corollaries to the rules of syllogisms:
1. No conclusion can be drawn from two particular premises.

2. A particular premise requires a particular conclusion.
The mood of the sentence:

Only bugs like to crawl on the ground.
A - UU

The word "Only" makes it UU
Existential Fallacy
When a conclusion posits existence, while the premises left the question of existence open.
1st Order - Major Missing
2nd Order - Minor Missing
3rd Order - Conclusion Missing

Look for key conclusion words, "therefore, ergo, thus, hence"

The word because tells you the conclusion is within the enthymeme, but it major/minor comes directly after the word because.
Chain Arguments
Sorites Test is the most popular
A is B
B is C
So A is C

All parts of Chain must be valid in order for chain to be valid.
If it is not a Sorites test, break it up into syllogisms.

Constantly look for equivocation to prove wrong Sorites test.
Complex of arguments all directed towards a single conclusion.

Look for a syllogism within the paragraph.
Three types of truth functional statements
Hypothetical/ Conditional (if...then)

Disjunctive (either...or)

Conjunctive (cannot be both)
Hypothetical syllogism
Valid to posit the antecedent and sublate the consequent
Antecedent and consequent are called clauses
If and only if...

uses three lines between clauses

Always doubtful
Disjunctive syllogism
Valid only to sublate

More than two clauses may be used in the major
Conjunctive syllogism
Valid only to posit

~(p . q)
q Valid
Simple Dilemma
Major Premise: 2 Hypotheticals
Minor Premise: 1 Disjunctive
Conclusion: Clause

Same outcome for both hypothetical. That outcome is the conclusion
Complex Dilemma
(p > q) . (r > s)
p v r
q v s
Put into symbolic logic:

The fact that he stole your scarf is no reason that you should not help him.
Symbolic Logic:

Even if furnace is not working, you should have it checked out.
Simple dilemma
Method starting with particular facts and attempting to draw a general conclusion.

No set of rules, based on trial and error and subject to constant revisions.
Two major steps of inductions:
1) Gathering data through experimentation and observation

2) Arrive at insight towards a commonality of the data
Modern Scientific Methocology
Data is measured and translated into mathematical terms.

Hypothesis/Formula is formed, that being a math structure that represents. These make it easier to control substance.

Lastly, test theory through experiment, and if it is accurate then it is "verified".
A propositions is...
A sentence which expresses something is either true or false.
What is this symbol called ~
Truth functional operator
What is this symbol called .
Truth functional connector
Can be used for and, but, yet
Give truth tables for
1) ~p . ~q

2) p v ~q
Both conjuncts must be true in order for the conjunction to be true
p and q are alternatives

Just one alternative must be true in order for the disjunction to be true
If a truth table is always false its called...