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63 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Types of Inductive Arguments
Prediction
Analogy
Generalization
Authority
Signs
Causal Inference
Types of Deductive Arguments
Math
Definition
Categorical Syllogism
Hypothetical Syllogism
Disjunctive Syllogism
What are the indicator words for a Categorical Syllogism?
All, Some, & Know
What are the indicator words for a hypothetical syll?
If....then
What are the indicator words for disjunctive syllogism?
either... or...
Definition of a sound argument
argument that is valid and has ALL true premises.

sound = valid arg. + all true prem.
A deductively valid argument can have a true conclusion
True
Definition of a Cogent Agrument
Inductive, strong, & all true prem.


cogent = strong + all true prem.
Valid deductive argument
it is impossible for the conclusion to be false, give that the premises are true.
Invalid Deductive Argument
It is possible for the conclusion to be false given that the premises are true.
Weak Inductive Argument
The conclusion does not follow probably from the premises, even though it is claimed to.
Strong Inductive Argument
inductive argument...it is improbable that the conclusion be false give that the premises are true.
Deductive Arguments
involve necessary reasoning
Inductive arguments
involve probalistic reasoning
A sound argument may have a false conclusion
False
A strong argument may have a false premise & a probably false conclusion.
True
If you have a valid argument with all true premises, its conclusion cannot be false.
True
Inductive arguments admit varying degrees of strength & weakness.
True
A argument can be sound, but not valid.
False
A deductively valid argument can have a false conclusion
True
A valid argument may have a false premise & a true conclusion.
True
If an argument is sound, it is impossible for it to have a false conclusion.
True
A cogent argument can have false premises.
False
If an inductive argument is strong & cogent, then it's conclusion is Necessarily true.
False
If you have an argument with obviously true premises & an obvioulsy true conclusion, you necessarily have a valid argument.
false
If an argument is deductively invalid, the premises may be true.
True
A statement may be legitimately spoken of as "valid" or "invalid."
False
An argument may be legitimately spoken of as "true or false."
False
If an argument has a true premise & a true conclusion, we know that it's a perfectly good arguement.
False
A cogent argument must be inductively strong.
True
A cogent argument may have a probably false conclusion.
False
A strong argument may have true premises and a probably false conclusion
False
A valid argument may have a false premise & a false conclusion.
True
If a deductive argument has true premises & a false conclusion it is necessarily invalid.
True
Inductive arguments admit varying degrees of strength and weakness.
True
Some argument, while not completely valid, are almost valid.
False
Conclusion Indicator Word
Therefore
Accordingly
Entails that
Wherefore
We May Conclude
Conclusion Indicator Words
Hence
Thus
It must be that
It follows that
Consequently
Conclusion Indicator Words
For this reason
Implies that
We May Infer
So
As a result Apparently
Premise Indicator Words
Since
May be infered from
Seeing that
In that
For the reason that
More Premise Indicator Words
Because
As
Inasmuchas
For
As indicate by
Premise indicator words
Give that
owing to
AD BAC
Appeal to Force
Ad Mis
Appeal to pity
Ad pop
Appeal to the people
Ad Hom
Argument against the person
Tu quo
"You Too" hypocrisy
Accident
Making acception to the general rule.
Straw Man
Distort the Argument
Red Herring
Distraction
Ad Vere
Appeal to false authority
Ad Ig
Appeal to ignorance
Hasty generalization
Too small of a sample population
False Cause
Superstitous/cause & effect
Slippery Slope
Innocent first step = disaster
Weak analogy
A....
Complex Question
2 questions = 1 question & 1 answer... leading question.
False Dichotomy
ultimatium
Equivocation
Sematics... meaning of words change.
Amphiboly
syntax... ambiguous grammar
Composition
parts to whole
Division
whole to parts
Begging the Question
Circular Reasoning