Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/57

Click to flip

57 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Ladies and gentlemen, today the lines of battle have been drawn. When the din of clashing armor has finally died way, the Republican party will emerge victorious! We are the true party of the American people! We embody the values that all real Americans hold sacred! We cherish and protect our founding fathers' vision that gave birth to the Constitution! We stand for decency and righteousness; for self-determination and the liberty to conduct our affairs as each of us freely chooses! In the coming election, victory will be ours, so help up God!
Ad Populum - Appeal to the People

Fallacy of Relevance
As a businessperson you certainly want to subscribe to Forbes magazine. Virtually all the successful business executives in the country subscribe to it.
Ad Populum - Appeal to the People

Fallacy of Relevance
Of course you should eat Wheaties. Wheaties is the breakfast of champions, you know.
Ad Populum - Appeal to the People

Fallacy of Relevance
The position open in the accounting department should be given to Frank Thompson. Frank has 6 hungry children to feed, and his wife desperately needs an operation to save her eyesight.
Ad Misericordiam - Appeal to Pity

Fallacy of Relevance
Surely architect Norris is not responsible for the collapse of the Central Bank Tower. Norris has had nothing but trouble lately. His daughter eloped with a child molester, his son committed suicide, and his alcoholic wife recentl left for Las Vegas with his retirement savings.
Ad Misericordiam - Appeal to Pity

Fallacy of Relevance
I know that some of you oppose the appointment of David Cole as the new sales manager. Upon further consideration, however, I am confident you will find him well qualified for the job. If Cole is not appointed, it may become necessary to make severe personnel cutbacks in your department
Ad Baculum - Appeal to Force

Fallacy of Relevance
Surely you welcome the opportunity to join our protective organization. Think of all the money you will lose from broken windows, overturned trucks, and damaged merchandise in the event of your not joining.
Ad Baculum - Appeal to Force

Fallacy of Relevance
Johnny, of course I deserve the use of your bike for the afternoon. After all, I'm sure you wouldn't want you mother to find out that you played hooky today.
Ad Baculum - Appeal to Force

Fallacy of Relevance
Marge Schott, minority owner of the Cincinnati Reds, has argued that professional baseball should be exempt from federal antitrust legislation. But consider this: Schott is a disgusting racist bigot who speaks approvingly of Adolf Hitler. Clearly, we should ignore her antitrust arguments.
Ad Hominem (Abusive)

Fallacy of Relevance
Friedrich Nietzsche's philosophy is not worth the paper it's printed on. Nietzsche was an immoral reprobate who went completely insave from syphillis before he died.
Ad Hominem (Abusive)

Fallacy of Relevance
Senate Majority Leader Tom Daschle argues that ethanol should be added to gasoline to reduce air pollution. But of course Daschle arges this way. He represents South Dakota, which is loaded with grain growers, and ethanol is manufactured from grain. Thus, we should ignore Daschle's arguments.
Ad Hominem (Circumstantial)

Fallacy of Relevance
Paula Anderson, spokesperson for State Farm Insurance, has argued that jury awards for pain and suffering should be severly limited. But his is exactly what you would expect her to say. After all, attorney fees come out of these awards, and if the awards are limited, no one will ever sue her company.
Ad Hominem (Circumstantial)

Fallacy of Relevance
President George W. Bush argues that we should open up the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge for oil drilling. But Bush just wants to reward his rich cronies in the oil industry who got him elected. Thus, we can hardly take Bush's argument seriously.
Ad Hominem (Circumstantial)

Fallacy of Relevance
If a car breaks down on the freeway, a passing mechanic is not obligated to render emergency road service. For similar reasons, if a person suffers a heart attack on the street, a passing physician is not obligated to render emergency medical assistance.
Ignoratio Elenchi

Fallacy of Relevance
Dear Internal Revenue Service: I received a notice that my taxes are being audited for last year. But you have no right to do this. The deadline for filing a return was April 15, and I filed my tax return on April 12 -- a full three days before the deadline.
Ignoratio Elenchi

Fallacy of Relevance
Mr. Rhodes is suffering from amnesia and has no recollection whatever of the events of the past 2 weeks. We can only conclude that he did not commit the crime of murdering his wife a week ago, as he has been accused of doing.
Ignoratio Elenchi

Fallacy of Relevance
Something is seriously wrong with high school education these days. After 10 years of decline, SAT scores are still extremely low, and high school graduates are practically incapable of reading and writing. The obvious conclusion is that we should close the schools.
Ignoratio Elenchi

Fallacy of Relevance
No one has proved conclusively that America's nuclear power plants constitute a danger to people living in their immediate vicinity. Therefore, it is perfectly safe to continue to build nuclear power plants near large metropolitan centers.
Ad Ignorantiam

Fallacy of Defective Induction
No one has ever proved that the human fetus is not a person with rights. Therefore, abortion is morally wrong.
Ad Ignorantium

Fallacy of Defective Induction
No one has ever been able to prove the existence of extrasensory perception. We must therefore conclude that extrasensory perception is a myth.
Ad Ignorantium

Fallacy of Defective Induction
Pianist Ray Charles says that Sinclair paints are groovy. We can only conclude that Sinclair paints are very groovy indeed.
Ad Verecundiam

Fallacy of Defective Induction
Former Senate majority leader Trent Lott announced in a press conference that homosexuality is a sin. In view of Mr Lott's expertise in religious matters, we must conclude that homosexuality is a sin, just as he claims.
Ad Verecundiam

Fallacy of Defective Induction
Televangelist Jerry Falwell said that God's anger with feminism led to the destruction of the World Trade Center. Given Falwell's closeness to God, we have no alternative than to blame the feminists for this atrocity.
Ad Verecundiam

Fallacy of Defective Induction
Pope John Paul II stated that artificial insemination of women is immoral. We can only conclude that this practice is indeed immoral.
Ad Verecundiam

Fallacy of Defective Induction
At a news conference in Europe, President George W. Bush stated, "African is a nation that suffers from incredible disease." Apparently Africa is now a nation.
Ad Verecundiam

Fallacy of Defective Induction
On Monday I drank 10 rum and Cokes, and the next morning I woke up with a headache. On Wednesday, I drank 8 gin and Cokes, and the next morning I woke up with a headache. On Friday I drank 9 Bourbon and Cokes, and the next morning I woke up with a headache. Obviously, to prevent further headaches I must give up Coke.
False Cause

Fallacy of Defective Induction
A few minutes after Gov. Harrison finished his speech on TV, a devastating earthquake struck southern Alaska. For the safety of the people up there, it is imperative that Gov. Harrison make no more speeches.
False Cause

Fallacy of Defective Induction
Mr. Franklin has lost at the craps table for the last 10 throws of the dice. Therefore, it is extremely likely that he will win on the next throw.
False Cause

Fallacy of Defective Induction
On our first date, George had his hands all over me, and I found it nearly impossible to keep him in his place. A week ago Tom gave me that stupid line about how, in order to prove my love, I had to spend the night with him. Men are all alike. All any of them want is sex.
Hasty Generalization

Fallacy of Defective Induction
Federal officers assaulted the family of Randy Weaver in northern Idaho, killing his wife, and they were also involved in the destruction of the Branch Davidian compound in Waco, Texam, with great loss of life. The conclusion is clear that federal officials are just a pack of killers.
Hasty Generalization

Fallacy of Defective Induction
The Daily News carried an article this morning about 3 local teens who were arrested on charges of drug possession. Teens these days are nothing but a bunch of junkies.
Hasty Generalization

Fallacy of Defective Induction
Freedom of speech is guaranteed by the 1st Amendment. Therefore, your friend was acting within his rights when he shouted, "Fire! Fire!" in that crowded theater, even though it was only a joke.
Accident

Fallacy of Presumption
What goes up must come down. The price of housing has been going up for years. Therefore, it will surely come down soon.
Accident

Fallacy of Presumption
The 1st Amendment to the Constitution prevents the government from interfering with the free exercise of religion. The liturgical practice of Religion of Internal Enlightenment involved human sacrifice. Therefore, it would be wrong for the government to interfere with this religious practice.
Accident

Fallacy of Presumption
Why is it so difficult for you to reach a decision?
Complex Question

Fallacy of Presumption
Alex, I heard you testimony in court earlier today. Tell me, why did you lie on the witness stand?
Complex Question

Fallacy of Presumption
Sylvia, I saw you shopping for wine the other day. Incidenttally, are you still drinking excessively?
Complex Question

Fallacy of Presumption
The Book of Mormon is true because it was written by Joseph Smith. Joseph Smith wrote the truth because he was divinely inspired. We know that Joseph Smith was divinely inspired because the Book of Mormon says that he was, and the Book of Mormon is true.
Petitio Principii

Fallacy of Presumption
Of course abortion is permissible. After all, a woman has a right to do as she pleases with her own body.
Petitio Principii

Fallacy of Presumption
We know that induction with provide dependable results in the future because it has always worked in the past. Whatever has consistently worked in the past will continue to work in the future, and we know that this is true because it has been established by induction.
Petitio Principii

Fallacy of Presumption
Emeralds are seldom found in this country, so you should be careful not to misplace your emerald ring.
Equivocation

Fallacy of Ambiguity
If Thomas gives Marie a ring, then Thomas and Marie will be engaged. Thomas did give Marie a ring. In fact, he phoned her just the other night. Therefore, Thomas and Marie are engaged.
Equivocation

Fallacy of Ambiguity
An athlete is a human being. Therefore a good athlete is a good human being.
Equivocation

Fallacy of Ambiguity
A crust of bread is better than nothing. Nothing is better than true love. Therefore, a crust of bread is better than true love.
Equivocation

Fallacy of Ambiguity
The travel brochure states that walking up O'Connell Street, the statue of Parnell comes into view. Apparently the statue has no trouble getting around.
Amphiboly

Fallacy of Ambiguity
Mr Wilson said that on July 4 he went out on the veranda and watched the fireworks go up in his pajamas. We conclude that Mr. Wilson must have had an exciting evening.
Amphiboly

Fallacy of Ambiguity
The author warns about numerous computational errors in his accounting text. Therefore, he must have written it very carelessly.
Amphiboly

Fallacy of Ambiguity
George said that he was interviewing for a job drilling oil wells in the supervisor's office. We can only conclude that the supervisor must have an awfully dirty office.
Amphiboly

Fallacy of Ambiguity
Molecules are in constant random motion. The Statue of Liberty is composed of molecules. Therefore, the Statue of Liberty is in constant random motion.
Composition

Fallacy of Ambiguity
Every member of the Delta Club is over 70 years old. Therefore, the Delta club must be over 70 years old.
Composition

Fallacy of Ambiguity
An atomic bomb causes more damage than a conventional bomb. Therefore, during World War II more damage was caused by atomic bombs than by conventional bombs.
Composition

Fallacy of Ambiguity
All men are mortal. Therefore, some day man will disappear from the earth.
Composition

Fallacy of Ambiguity
The idea that black people in this country live in poverty is ridiculous. Look at Bill Cosby. He's a millionaire. And so are Denzel Washington and Oprah Winfrey.
Composition

Fallacy of Ambiguity
California condors are rapidly disappearing. This bird is a California condor. Therefore, this bird should disappear any minute now.
Division

Fallacy of Ambiguity
Water will quench one's thirst. What is composed of hydrogen and oxygen. Therefore hydrogen and oxygen will quench one's thirst.
Division

Fallacy of Ambiguity
Switzerland is 48 percent Protestant. Heidi Gilsing is Swiss. Therefore, Heidi Gilsing is 48 percent Protestant.
Division

Fallacy of Ambiguity
Johnson is employed by the General Services Administration, and everyone knows that the GSA is the most inefficient branch of the government. Therefore, Johnson must be an inefficient worker.
Division

Fallacy of Ambiguity