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57 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
statement
a sentence that is either true or false
conditional statement
"If...then"
categorical statement
"all/no/some.. are/are not"
quality
affirmative or negative
quantity
universal or particular
explanation
a non-argument that tries to shed light on something... usually accepted as matter of fact.NOT PROVING ANYTHING
premise(s)
statement in argument that sets forth evidence
truth-value
the attribute by which a statement is either true or false
conclusion
the statement in an argument that the premises are claimed to support or imply
argument
a group of statements, one or more of which are the premise which claims to provide support for the conclusion
deductive argument
it is impossible for conclusion to be false given that the premises are true
inductive argument
it is improbable that the conclusion be false given that the premises are true.
valid (deduction)
impossible fro conclusion to be false given premises are true
invalid (deductive)
it is possible fro the conclusion to be false given that the premises are true.

all banks are financial institutions
wells fargo is a financial institution
therefore, wells fargo is a bank
sound (deductive)
valid with true premises
unsound (deductive)
invalid, has one or more false premises or both
enthymeme
an argument that is missing a part (premise)
syllogism
deductive argument with 2 premises and 1 conclusion
major term
predicate
minor term
subject
middle term
the term that occurs only in the premises of categorical syllogism
hypothetical syllogism
conditional statement (if...) for one or both of premises
disjunctive
"either..or.." statement in one of its premises
traditional square of opposition
A E
I O
contradictory
opposite truth value
contrary
at least one is false (not both true)
subcontrary
at least one is true (not both false)
subalternation
truth flows downwards, falsity flows upwards
true or false:
All valid arguments are sound
False
true or false:
All sound arguments are valid
True
true or false:
Some sound arguments have false premises
False
true or false:
Some valid arguments have false premises
True
unless
v
(wedge)
tautology
a wff that cannot be false
self-contradictory proposition
a wff that cannot be true
P * Q
t
f
f
f
P v Q
t
t
t
f
P > Q
t
f
t
t
P = Q
t
f
t
t
T or F
a valid argument may have a false premise and a true conclusion
True
T or F
A valid argument may have a false premise and a true conclusion
False
T or F
A sound argument may be invalid
False
An argument can be legitimately spoken of as "true" or "false"
False
sound argument =
valid + true premises
cogent argument =
strong + true premises
proposition
statement that is either true or false
Francis Bacon's argument for
The New Organon
truth must be discovered by starting from facts of nature and gradually moving toward general axioms. He critiques the syllogism and aristotelean deductive logic on the basis that it accepts matters of fact and axioms out right.
Mill's Method of Joint Agreement and Difference
identify a condition that is present in 2 or more occurances in which the phenomenon is present and absent in 2 or more occurances in which the phenomenon is absent
Hume's worry concerning inductive reasoning (the Inquiry)
everyday reasoning depends on repeated experiences rather than deductively valid arguments. there is no gaurantee that past will always determine future.
example of formal fallacy DENYING THE ANTECEDENT
If you work hard you will get a good job. If you do not work hard you will not get a good job.
example of formal fallacy
AFFIRMING THE CONSQUENT
if you own a horse you know an equine veterinarian. I know an equine veterinarian, therefore I own a horse.
pure hypothetical syllogism
all thoroughbreds are horses
all horses are herbavores
all thoroughbreds are herbavores
MP
if A then B
A
-- B
MT
if A then B
not B
-- not A
DS
either A or B
not A
-- B
CD
(p then q) * (r then s)
p or r
-- q or s
Conj
p
q
-- p * q