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27 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
logic
science that evaluates arguments
argument
group of statements which contain premises that claim to support a conclusion
statement
sentence that is either true of false
conclusion indicators
therefore, accordingly, entails that, hence, thus, consequently, so...
premise indicators
since, because, for, given that...
inference
reasoning process expressed by an argument (argument)
proposition
meaning or information content of a statement (statements)
simple noninferential passages
warning, piece of advice, statement of belief/opinion, loosely associated statements, report
expository passages
contains a topic sentence and the other sentences are intended to expand upon/explain the topic sentence
arguments from example
use illustrations for argumentative purposes
explanandum
what is being explained
explanans
purport to do the explaining
deductive argument
impossible for the conclusion to be false given that the premises are true
inductive argument
improbable for the conclusion to be false given that the premises are true
deductive argument forms
arguments from mathematics, definition, categorical syllogism, hypothetical syllogism, disjunctive syllogism
categorical syllogism
each statement begins with the words "all," "no," or "some."
hypothetical syllogism
syllogism with a conditional statement for one or both of its premises
disjunctive syllogism
contains disjunctive statement such as "either...or"
inductive argument forms
prediction, analogy, generalization, authority, based on signs, causal inference
valid deductive argument
impossible for the conclusion to be false given that the premises are true
invalid deductive argument
it is possible for the conclusion to be false given that the premises are true
sound argument
a deductive argument that is valid and has all true premises
strong inductive argument
improbable that the conclusion is false given that the premises are true
weak inductive argument
conclusion does not follow probably from the premises, even if it claims to
cogent argument
strong inductive argument that has all true premises
substitution instance
uniformly substituting terms or statements in place of the letters in an argument's form
counterexample method
isolating argument form and then proving it invalid through substitution instance which yields true premises and false conclusion