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21 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Division
Attribute is wrongly transferred from whole to parts
composition
attribute is wrongly transferred from parts to whole
Amphiboly
Conclusion depends on the wrong interpretation of a syntactically ambiguous statement
Equivocation
Conclusion depends on a shift in meaning of a word or phrase
False dichotomy
‘Either… or’ statement that truly hides other alternative
Weak analogy
Conclusion depends on defective analogy
False cause
conclusion depends on nonexistent or minor causal connection
Hasty generalization
conclusion is drawn from atypical sample
Appeal to ignorance
Premises report that nothing is known or proved, and then a conclusion is drawn
Appeal to unqualified authority
Citing untrustworthy authority
Red Herring
Arguer leads reader off track
Missing the point
Draw a conclusion different from that supported by premises
Straw man
Arguer distorts opponent's argument and then attacks the distorted argument
Accident
General rule is applied to a specific case it was not intended to cover
Ad Hominem
Argument against the person
Appeal to the people
Appeals to the listener's desire for security love respect, etc.
Valid argument
True premises and true conclusion
Sound
Deductive argument if valid and has true premises
Cogent
Inductive argument cogent if and only if it is strong and has true premises
Inductive argument
Give proof of the probable truth of conclusion
Deductive argument
intention to give absolute proof of conclusion