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16 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Where did the first evidence for localization of function come from?
CVA patients who presented with speech and/or language deficits.
Describe the speech of a patient with Broca's aphasia.
Sparse and labored with omitted words.
Patients with Broca's aphasia are able to communicate normally by writing.
False: The speech deficit (sparse, labored) is evident in writing as well.
How is comprehension of language affected in patients with Broca's aphasia?
Patients with Broca's have normal comprehension.
Where is Broca's area located?
Left inferior frontal gyrus.
What evidence shows that the speech deficits seen in Broca's aphasia are not the result of a motor deficit?
*deficit exists in writing ability as well
*primary motor cortex unaffected
Describe the speech of patients suffering from Wernicke's aphasia.
*normal fluent cadence, rhythm and inflection
*nonsensical content, word salad
Where is Wernicke's area located?
Left superior temporal gyrus.
What is the pathway of information as described in wernicke's theory of language?
1. Sensory input from the ears (or eyes) goes to Wernicke's area
2. Info travels back and forth to higher centers in the brain
3. Info travels then from Wernicke's area to Broca's area via arcuate fasciculus
4. Signals travel to the precentral gyrus where motor speech signals are generated
Where is the arcuate fasciculus? What effects would a lesion here have?
*nerve tract connecting Wernicke's and Broca's areas
*Wernicke's speech (normal cadence, abnormal content) but with normal comprehension
How does the INAH3 differ between the brains of males and females?
It is 3 times larger in male brains.
What was a problem with the study that correlated a smaller INAH3 with homosexual behavior?
All homosexual subjects were also end-stage AIDS patients and it is unclear if this contributed to the smaller size of the nucleus.
Though not shown to be determined by biology, sexual preference has been shown to be influenced by biology.
This is true.
Why do males (on average) have larger brains than females?
Because brain size is ralative to body size and males are on average larger than females.
What is androgen insensitivity syndrome?
*genetic defect in testosterone receptors
*XY genotype
*female phenotype, behavior and a sexual preference towards males
What gene on the Y chromosome causes the embryo to develop into a male?
Testis determining factor which stimulates development of the testis which then express testosterone.