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14 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Lower Motor Neuron Symptoms
1) Weakness/paralysis
2) Hypotonia
3) Hyporeflexia
4) Atrophy of muscles
5) Fasciculations
Upper Motor Neuron Symptoms
1) Weakness/paralysis
2) Hypertonia
3) Hyperreflexia
4) Abnormal reflexes (Babinski)
CEBELLAR FUNCTIONS:
Archicerebellum, vestibular cerebellum, flocculonodular lobe.
Balance
Eye movements
CEREBELLAR FUNCTION:
Paleocerebellum, spinal cerebellum
muscle tone, adjusts ongoing movements
CEREBELLAR FUNCTION:
Neocerebellum, corticopontine cerebellum
coordination of skilled movements
Decerebrate State
1) Lesion is between red nucleus and vestibular nucleus
2) Upper and Lower extremity extension and internal rotation
3) Release of inhibition and loss of flexor (rubrospinal) tone
Decorticate rigidity
1) Supratentorial lesion
2) Upper extremity flexion/adduction
3) Lower extremity extension, internal rotation
4) Due to loss of input from the cortex
Spinal cord transection
(acute)
"Spinal Shock"
1) Complete paralysis and anasthesia below the lesion
2) Temporary areflexia
Spinal cord transection
(chronic)
1) Complete paralysis and anasthesia below the lesion
2) Hyperreflexia (upper motor neuron injury)
Central cord syndrome
1) Bilateral spinothalamic loss at the level of the lesion
2) Upper motor neuron paralysis affecting upper extremity MORE than lower extremity
Brown-Séquard syndrome
(Spinal cord hemisection)
IPSILATERAL:
1) Possible LMN paralysis at the level of the lesion (AHC)
2) Possible cutaneous anasthesia at the level of the lesion
3) UMN paralysis below the level of the lesion
4) Proprioceptive loss below the level of the lesion
CONTRALATERAL:
1) Pain and temp loss below the level of the lesion
Anterior cord syndrome
BILATERAL:
1) Upper motor paralysis below the level of the lesion
2) Pain/temp loss below the level of the lesion
3) Relative sparing of proprioception below the level of the lesion
Cauda equina syndrome
(purely lower motor)
1) Saddle distribution
2) LMN paralysis below level of lesion (loss of bladder, bowel sphincter reflexes, lower limbs paralyzed)
Conus medullaris syndrome
(almost always a central lesion)
1) Includes injury to sacral cord and cauda equina
2) Usually LMN findings
3) May spare sacral reflexes!