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67 Cards in this Set

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Describe the postmortem changes observed in the liver.
Autolysis: Soft, friable, red to gray, gas bubbles, pale "rose spots"

Imbibition of Bile: leakage of biel from the gallbladder and extrahepatic ducts

Pseudomelanosis: Contact with GI tract

Streamling of perfusion: especially prominent in horses
List the two congenital anomalies observed in the liver.
Cysts: yellow to red content, bile duct origin

Porto: equal shunt
List and describe the types of physical injury that can be incured by the liver.
Perforation: FB, parasites or biopsy

Rupture: caused by massive trauma (HBC), hepatomegaly (congestion, fatty liver, hepatitis)

Strangulation: diapragmatic hernia, occasionally get torsion of a lobe (usually left lateral lobe)
Describe the different types of pigments that can be found in the liver.
Icterus: yellow to green liver, distended extrahepatic ducts and gallbaldder; yellow to orange bile casts in biliary tree

Hemosiderosis: brownish-black, hemolytic anemias (EIA) may cause; yellow-brown crystalline deposit in Kupffer cells

Melanosis: congenital, may be acquired in old sheep and cattle

Fluke Pigment: black excretory pigment acculmulated in periductal tissue and hepatic lymph nodes (Fe-porphyrin compound)

Carotenosis: yellow ether-souble pigment that can accumulate in the liver of animals fed large amounts of carotene
What are the causes of atrophy of the liver?
Cachexia, starvation, chonic congestion, post-necrosis, external compression, cirrhosis, portocaval shunt
What are the lesions associated with atrophy of the liver?
Decreased weight, sharp edges, fibrotic
What are the lesions of nodular hyperplasia of the liver?
Scattered pale nodules, often cirrhosis present, common in old dogs, proliferation of hepatocytes but lack of normal achitecture
What are the causes of hydropic degeneration of the liver?
Hypoxia, anemia, septicemia, toxic injury, glucocorticoid hepatopathy
What are the lesions assoicated with hydropic degeneration of the liver?
Pale and swollen grossly with swollen vacoulated hepatocytes
What are the causes of negative engery balance in the liver?
Diabetes mellitus, ketosis, starvation, choline deficiency, advanced pregnancy, pregnancy toxemia of sheep, hyperlipidemia and hepatic lipidosis
What are the lesions assoicated with fatty liver?
Pale, swollen, friable. Histologically, spherical empty vacuoles in heptocytes

+/- floation in fixative/water
What are the causes of amyloidosis in the liver?
Idiopathic or secondary to tissue-destroying process (abscesses, neoplasms, chronic inflammation)
What are the lesions associated with amyloidosis in the liver?
Swollen, pale firm liver

Homogenous eosinophilic deposits.
Describe focal necrosis. What is its significance?
Scattered pale foci (1-2 mm in diameter) that give the appearance of a sawdust liver. Of little significance because of the great functional reserve of the liver.
What can cause focal necrosis of the liver?
Mild toxic damage and septicemia (salmonella, tularemia, pseudotuberculosis, listeria of fetus, pseudorabies, rhinopneumonitis)
Describe centrilobular (zonal) necrosis.
Mottled, slightly depressed red centers of lobules

Histologically, CL coagulation necrosis
What can cause central lobular necrosis of the liver?
Hypoxia, anemia, shock, right heart failure, toxins (chemical, bacteria, plant), Rift Valley Fever, Infectious Canine Hepatitis
List the 3 sequelae of centrilobular necrosis
Regeneration without scarring
Regeneration with scarring
Death from acute or chronic hepatic failure
Describe the appearance of a liver with massive (zonal) necrosis.
Scattered red swollen necrotic lobules. If chronic, irregular pitted surface from post-necrotic collapse and scarring. Histologically, coagulation necrosis and hemorrhage +/- involving scattered whole lobules, lobular collapse and scarring if chronic
What can cause massive zonal necrosis of the liver?
Nutritional deficiency (Se, Vit E), toxic injury (mycotoxins, plants), chemicals (cerosol, phosphorus, halogenated hydrocarbons)
What is the sequelae of massive zonal necrosis of the liver?
Death from acute hepatic failure

Healing from postnecrotic collapse and scarring
What is hepatosis dietetica of swine?
Se-Vit E deficincy in growing pigs that causes massive zonal necrosis (with hemorrhage). May be accompanied by ascites, mulberry hear disease and white muscle disease
List the causes of edema in the liver.
Hepatosis dietetica
Describe the lesions of edema in the liver.
Wet translucent distention of the connective tissue around the gallbladder, bile ducts and hepatic interstitium
What is the cause of chronic passive congestion (nutmeg liver)?
Right heart failure
Describe the lesions associated with nutmeg liver.
Gross: mottled with red central and yellow peripheral lobular appearance, swollen and congested if acute, but may be atrophied if chronic

Histologically: CL degeneration, necrosis and atrophy of hepatocytes, fatty change in peripheral-lobular hepatocytes, hemosiderin in Kupffer cells, post-necrotic fibrosis if chronic
What is the sequelae to chronic passive congestion in the liver?
Ascites, subcutaneous edema (brisket disease) and eventual hepatic failure
What are the causes of hemorrhage in the liver?
Massive necrosis
Parastic migration
What are the lesions associated with hemorrhage in the liver?
Hemorrhage and necrosis, clot formation, scarring if chronic
What is a portocaval shunt?
Observed in dogs, this allows portal blood to bypass the liver, often produces hepatic encephalopathy and high blood ammonia leves, produces hepatic atrophy
What are the causes of thrombosis and infacrtion of the portal vein?
Bacillary hemoglobinuria of cattle

What is telangiectasis?
Scattered purple groups of lobules filled with blood, common in cattle (idiopathic)

Histologically, coalesced sinusoids
In what species is peliosis hepatits commonly observed?
List the causes of necrotizing hepatitis.
Infectious: ICH - adenoviruses, rhinopneumonitis, canine herpes infection, leptospirosis, toxoplasmosis and pseudorabies
What is the pathogenesis of necrotizing hepatitis?
Hematogenous infection by hepatotrophic agents
What is the appearance of a liver with necrotizing hepatitis?
Gross: swollen, pale, mottled friable liver (with gallbladder edema in ICH)

Histo: necrosis of hepatocytes, inculsion bodies, organisms, minimal inflammatory reaction, dissociation of hepatocytes (with lepto)
What are the causes of suppurative hepatitis (abscesses, suppurative cholangiohepatitis)?
Actinomyces pyogenes, Streptococcus sp., Staphyloccus sp., Fusobacterium necrophorum, Clostridium piliformis
List the 5 routes of infection for suppurative hepatitis.
Secondary to caustic rumenitis
Secondary to omphalophlebitis
Secondary to hardware disease
Secondary to hematogenous spread in bacteremia
Secondary to ascending cholangitis
List the common bacterial pathogens to cause disease in the liver and the animals in which the infections are observed.
Listerosis and Campylobacter fetus (neonatal lambs);
Actinobacillus equuli (foals);
Yersinia pseudotuberculosis (lambs);
Francisella tularensis (lamb/rabbit);
Salmonella (all);
TB (all);
Clostridium hemolyticum (cattle - fluke migration);
Clostridium piliformis (rodent, dog, cat -Tyzzer's Dz)
Chlamydiasis (birds)
What parasites migrate through the liver?
Ascaris suum, Stephanurus dentatus, Strongylus, Fasciola hepatica and gigantica, Fascioloides magna, Dircrocoelium dendriticum, Metorchis conjunctus
List toxins that cause damage to the liver.
Plants (blue-green algae), Chlorinated tetracarbons, phosphorus, cresols, iron compounds, idosyncratic drugs, aflatoxins, mycotoxins, pyrrolizidne alkaloids, nitrosamine, copper
What is serum hepatitis of horses?
Sporatic occurence of acute liver failure with neurologic signs, jaundice that may occur 40-60 days following vaccination.
What are the lesions assoicated with serum hepatitis of horses?
Friable "dish-rag" liver with fatty change, bile stasis, necrosis and leukocytic infiltration
What is cirrhosis?
Progressive end stage chonic liver disease with NECROSIS, FIBROSIS, and REGENERATION (self-perpetuating)
What are the lesions associated with cirrhosis of the liver?
Atrophic, firm, nodular liver with extensive fibrosis, loss of parenchyma and ongoing necrosis and regeneration
What is the pathogenesis of cirrhosis of the liver?
Hepatic injury (toxic, nutritional, infection, congestion) --> initiates necrosis, fibrosis and regeneration --> repeated insults provokes self-perpetuating damgae that continues even if primary cause is removed
What is the sequelae of cirrhosis of the liver?
Chronic hepatic failure, ascites and portal hypertension
List the 3 neoplastic diseases that can be found in the liver.
Bile duct adenoma (adenocarinoma) found in the dog and cat

Hepatocellular adenoma (hepatoma) and carcinoma: usually bening in dogs and cats and malignant in cattle and sheep

Metastatic neoplasms (second to the lung)
What are common causes of obstruction of the gallbladder?
External compression by neoplasms
What can cause edema of the gallbladder?
Hepatosis dietetica
What are the lesions associated with hypoplasia of the pancreas?
Lack of development of acinar tissue, duct system is prominent --> steatorrhea
What can cause atrophy of the pancreas?
Cachexia, starvation, chonic destruction (necrosis, inflammation, obstruction)
What are the lesions of atrophy in the pancreas?
Lack of zymogen granules.

Fibrosis if a destructive process has occured
Describe the lesions of nodular hyperplasia of the pancreas.
Pale nodules comprised of proliferated acinar cells lacking normal architecture
What are causes of necrosis in the pancreas?
Nutritional (high fat, low protein) influence, bile reflux, toxic injury

Seen in obsese, old dogs usually females

Se deficiency in chickens
What is the pathogenesis of pancreatic necrosis?
Activation of digestive enzymes in the gland --> autodigestion --> hemorrhagic necrosis and necrosis of peripancratic fat --> shock if recovery (often have multiple reoccurances)
What is the appearance of necrosis in the pancreas?
Red areas of hemorrhage, white plaques of fat necrosis (saponification), pancreas is firm, edematous, irregular and swollen
What is the sequelae of pancreatic necrosis?
Death from a single episode;
Mutliple episodes and eventually development of DM or acinar insufficiency;
Chronic interstitial pancreatitis
What are the causes of pancreatitis?
Asending infection from the intestine
Hematogenous infection (toxo)
What are the causes of fibrinous peritonitis?
FIP, Mycoplasma hyrhinis, Glasser's disease (Hemophilus parasuis), blackleg
What are the lesions of fibrinous periototis?
Yellow sheets and strands of fibrin adhering to viscera, excess serous to serosanguinous fluid in the cavity
What is the sequelae to fibrinous peritonitis?
Complete resoultion
Healing with fibrous adhesions
Death from septicemia
What are the causes of suppurative peritonitis?
Contaminated wounds (post-castration), contaminated abdominal surgery, ruptured viscus, hardware disese
What can cause granulomatous peritonitis?
TB (pearl disease);
Systemic mycoses
What are the lesions associated with FIP?
May have extensive fibrin and fluid accumulation throughout the cavity (wet) or scattered white foci of pyogranulomatous inflammation on the surface of the viscera (dry), may have accompanying pleuritis, ophthalmitis and meningitis
What is the cause of abdominal fat necrosis in ruminants?
Toxic injury --> fescue toxicity
What are the common neoplastic conditions of the peritoneum?
Lipoma: often multiple and pedunculated in horse (may produce intestinal strangulation)

Mesothelioma: primary tumor on serosal surface

Metastatic neoplasms: ovarian carcinoma common