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13 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
When are induced liver enzymes detected?
After several days, b/c they require production.
Examples: ALP, GGT
When can leakage enzymes be detected?
Within hours of hepatocyte damage, because they're already present in cytosol.
Name 4 leakage enzymes used to detect hepatocyte injury, and for which species.
1. ALT: small animals (LiTtle livers)
2. AST: small & large
3. SDH: large animals
4. GDH: both, but better in large
Significance of increased ALT:
LIVER specific (LiTle livers), can also increase in animals with severe muscle damage.
Significance of increased AST:
AST: present in hepatocytes & muscle cells, use CK to distinguish.
Significance of increased SDH:
SDH: Liver specific in large animals
Significance of increased ALP:
Bone: us young, normal (or hyperPTH)
Liver: marked inc d/t CHOLESTASIS
Drugs: steroids
Neoplasia: negative Px indicator in Osteosarcoma
note* mild increases are significant in cats
Significance of increased GGT?
Good indicator of CHOLESTASIS.
K9: can be inc d/t steroids or anticonvulsants
Lg animal: increased in neonates d/t high levels in colostrum
What are 3 causes of increased serum bilirubin?
1. increased Hgb production d/t RBC destruction
2. Dec uptake/conjugation by hepatocytes
3. Disruption of bile flow
What is the connection between Bilirubin and starvation?
In large animals can see increase BILI in serum d/t FFA release & competition w/ binding at hepatocytes.
What are 3 mechanisms of increase in bile acid concentration?
1. Deviation of portal circulation: shunts/cirrhosis.
2. Decreased hepatocyte uptake d/t liver dz.
3. Decreased BA excretion d/t cholestasis.
What is an indication for performing a bile acid assay?
If liver disease is suspected, but GGT &/or ALP are NORMAL (if abN you already know BAs will test +) OR if liver enzymes are ABnormal but bilirubin is NORMAL.
Which substances change in serum with liver failure? (#6)
Albumin: dec d/t dec production
Globulin: inc d/t dec clearance
Glucose: dec d/t dec production OR inc d/t dec hepatic uptake
Urea: dec conversion
Cholesterol: inc d/t cholestasis
Coagulation factors: dec d/t dec synthesis (increased OSPT, APTT)