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54 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
6 general liver functions:
"Excretory/detoxification (in bile)
General examples of substances stored in liver
vitamin K, iron, copper, fat soluble vitamins, glycogen
Examples of substances synthesized in liver
albumin, alpha I antitrypsin; proteins of coagulation cascade (fibrinogen, prothrombin, VIII,IX, X, XI, and Xli), bile
Liver failure becomes apparent when _______ of liver is destroyed or dysfunctional
"Ast (aspartate amlno-transterase) and
7 general signs of liver failure:
"Jaundice, Hypoalbumenernia, Hepatorenal syndrome, Portal hypertension, Encephalopathy, Endocrine abnormalities, coagulopathy
Encephalopathy I liver failure is due to the failure of the liver to remover _________ from the .
"Inflammation, Degeneration, necrosis, fibrosis, cirrhosis
2 major functions of hepatic bile
"elimination of bilirubrin and cholesterol
_______ occurs if bilirubin levels are greater than _______mg/dl.
Jaundice, 1.2
2.0-3.0 mg/dl.
Jaundice is best recognized in the __________.
"Conjugated bilirubin
Which type of bilirubin is tightly bound to albumin?
Unconjugated bilirubin:
Which type of bilirubin is water soluble?
Conjugated bilirubin
Which type of bilirubin can be excreted in ?
Conjugation of bilirubin takes place where?
Liver --No Eric, it is not the breast
Unconjugated, hemolysis
A manifestation of Gilbert's disease is:
Prehepatic Jaundice
Hepatic Jaundice is seen under what general conditions?
viral or -induced hepatitis, alcoholic hepatitis, tumors, and cirrhosis
T/F Hepatic Jaundice is associated with a buildup of conjugated bilirubin only.
False: It is mixed conjugated and unconjugated
Conjugated hyperbilirubinemia is manifest in what condition?
post-hepatic jaundice
post-hepatic jaundice is seen in _________ disorders such as gallstones, tumors of bile ducts, pancreas, or duodenum
_________ is the accumulation of unconjugated bilirubin (usually> 20 mg/dl) in the brain causing severe neurologic damage
Kernicterus can be seen in this condition that affects infants:
hemolytic disease of the newborn (erythroblastosis fetalis)
"2. Impaired/decreased conjugation
"Jaundice resulting from Predominantly conjugated hyperbilirubinemia:
Additional causes of jaundice:
"antifungals, high amounts of beta-carotene, medications
"A. chronic liver disease --> cirrhosis
Elevated ammonia levels in the from liver failure that lead to disturbances in consciousness ranging from behavioral abnormalities to coma is called:
hepatic encephalopathy
Hepatorenal syndrome:
liver fails--> kidneys fail drop in output, increase in urea nitrogen/creatine levels (in end-stage liver disease)
______ is synonymous with end-stage liver disease
T/F Cirrhosis is among the top ten causes of I western society.
"60% from alcohol abuse
Cirrhosis may take one to ___ years to develop.
What is the major pathologic process that accompanies cirrhosis?
"progressive fibrosis (regenerative firm nodular surface)
"Necrosis of liver cells
"portal cirrhosis
portal hypertension
"A. True
"A. True
formation of anastamoses (shunts) between the portal and systemic circulation (a result of portal hypertension)
"• Viral hepatitis
• Necrosis of hepatocytes (councilman bodies) are shrunken eosinophilic apoptotic anuclear fragments of hepatocytes)"
"Morphologic changes seen with viral hepatitis
• Hepatitis B— ground glass hepatocytes— due to accumulation of HBsAg; sanded nuclei due to abundant HBcAg"
"Morphologic changes seen with viral hepatitis
With viral hepatitis, what is the timeline established for acute vs. chronic infection?
"acute = resolves within 6 months
1 in __ patients is a carrier"
"4 million
characteristics of fulminant hepatitis include:
"severe acute iiver damage, encephalopathy, coaguiopathy with high risk of approaching 80%
fulminant hepatitis develops within _____ weeks of the onset of liver disease.
"Jaundice of skin and eyes
• donations not screened for Hepatitis A"
"Hepatits A:
• Can remain infective on operatory surfaces up to 7 days, cold sterilization ineffective"
"Hepatitis B
•9 documented cases of transmission from dental provider to patient over past 30 years"
"Hepatitis B