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40 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Proteins synthesized by the liver (6)

lipoprotein (VLDL)

glycoprotein (haptoglobin, transferrin, hemopexin)



non-immune alpha and beta globulin
Vitamins stored by the liver (3)
Vitamin A

Vitamin D

Vitamin K
function of hepatocytes with respect to drugs and toxins
oxidize or conjugate water insoluble drugs and toxins to make them more easily removable by the kidney
Metabolic functions of the kidney (3)
glycogen storage

cholesterol metabolism

urea synthesis
Composition of bile (2)
waste products of erythrocyte production

bile salts
Endocrine functions of the liver (3)
modification of vitamin D

modification of thyroxine

production of growth hormone-releasing factor (GHRH)
Blood supply of the liver (2)
hepatic portal vein (75%)

hepatic artery (25%)
composition of hepatic portal vein blood (5)
nutrients from the intestine

toxins from the intestine

blood cell breakdown products from the spleen

endocrine secretions of the pancreas

enteroendocrine cells of the GI tract
hepatic portal vein vs. hepatic artery

hepatic portal vein - low [O2]

hepatic artery - high [O2]
Components of the portal triad
hepatic portal vein

hepatic artery

bile duct
hepatic sinusoids drain into the
central vein (terminal hepatic venule)
central veins empty into the
sublobular veins
sublobular veins empty into the
hepatic veins
classic liver lobule configuration
hexagonal cylinder

central vein is located at the center

portal triads (6) are located at the corners
portal lobule configuration

portal canal is located at the center

central veins (3) are located at the corners
configuration of liver acinus
lozenge or football shape

long axis is a line drawn between two central veins

short axis is a line drawn between adjacent portal canals that lie between the central veins
Elliptical zones of a liver acinus (3)

*oxygen and nutrient and toxin exposure
Zone 1 (closest to the short axis)
- zone 1 hepatocytes are the first to receive oxygen, nutrients and toxins from the sinusoidal blood (last to die when circulation is impaired and first to regenerate)

Zone 2
- zone 2 are second in reiving oxygen, nutrients and toxins from sinusoidal blood
Zone 3
- zone 3 hepatocytes are last to receive oxygen, nutrients and toxins from sinusoidal blood (first to show ischemic necrosis and first to show fat accumulation)
hepatic sinusoids

*discontinuous or continuous?
*gaps between neighboring cells?
*discontinuous or continuous?: discontinuous
*fenestrae?: Yes (large)
*gaps between neighboring cells?: Yes
Kupffer cells are derived from
Functions of Kupffer cells (3)
destroy aged erythrocytes

digest hemoglobin

destroy bacteria
Function of spaces of Disse
site of exchange of material between blood and hepatocytes
Ito cells are located in the
space of Disse
Function of Ito cells
storage site for hepatic vitamin A
changes in Ito cells during chronic inflammation or cirrhosis
lose storage ability

transform into myofibroblasts and synthesize the collagen that results in liver fibrosis
Characteristics of hepatocyte nuclei

polyploid (adult liver: tetraploid)
life span of hepatocytes
5 months
hepatocyte organelles (6)
numerous mitochondria

numerous Golgi apparatuses (50)




sER hypertrophy due to
toxins (e.g., ethanol)
neonatal hyperbilirubinemia is caused by

underdevloped sER (bilirubin is not converted to bilirubin glucuronide)

*treatment: blue light from fluorescent bulbs
bile canaliculi empty into
intrahepatic ductules (canals of Hering)
intrahepatic ductules (canals of Hering) empty into
interlobular bile ducts (part of portal triad)
composition of bile (6)

*phospholipids (e.g., lecithin)


bile salts (e.g., cholic acid)

bile pigments


* = recycled
% of bile salts that are recycled
the color of feces is due to
bilirubin glucuronide
hormones responsible for increases in bile flow (3)


# of times that bile can be concentrated in the gallbladder
pathway of bile from the gallbladder into the duodenum
cystic duct --> common bile duct --> sphincter of Oddi --> duodenum

*epithelium: simple columnar
*microvilli?: Yes (apical)
Histologically, the gallbladder lacks
muscularis mucosae

invaginations of the mucosa of the gallbladder form
diverticula (Rokitansky-Aschoff sinuses)