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17 Cards in this Set

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elevated liver enzymes
enzymes the liver makes to help with metabolic process (catalyze chemical reactions)
aspartate aminotransferase
lactic dehydrogenase
alkaline phosphate
alanin aminotransferase
gamma glutamyltransferase
enlarged liver
obstruction of inf vena cava (caval obstruction with pedal edema)
portal hypertension and splenomegaly
depression of the clotting mechanism, easy bleeding
circulating plasma protein is decreased
acites
compression of abdominal lymphatics
portal passive congestion
hypoalbuminemia (decreased plasma proteins)
sodium retention (reduce blood flow velocity through kidneys)
impaired water excretion
elevated plasma bilirubin with jaundice
pruritis
Hepatitis A
type A virus (HAV)
**oral fecal route mode of entry
28 day incubation
4-6 week course (self limiting)
anasarca
swelling everywhere
S&S of Hep A
constitutional
nausea and diahhrea
jaundice with pruritis
hepatomegaly, elevated enzymes
aversion to food and cigarette smoke
Hepatitis B
type B virus
mode of entry (inoculation, oral fecal route, or STD)
120 day incubation
variable course
carriers may exist (2%)
S&S of hep B
constituional
nausea and diarrhea
jaundice with pruitis
hepatomegaly, elevated enzymes
aversion to food and cigarette smoke
hep B
90% complete recovery
2% carriers
10% chronic progressive hepatitis
non A/ non B hepatitis
type C - similar to HBV
blood transfusion related
IV drug
STD??
50% develop chronic hepatitis
20% cirrhosis or hepatic cancer
get it from tattoos, body piercing, drugs (needles)
RNA virus
1-6% may be carriers
S&S of hep C
same as hep A and B
cirrhosis
end result of liver disease
alcohol related (50%)
develop fatty liver
marked ascites
cirrhosis progression (cobblestone appearance, replacement with scar tissue, end stage liver disease, hepatocellular failure)
hepatocelluar failure
uniformly fatal
contributing events (hemmorrhage, failure to detoxify ammonia, metabolic acidosis, hepatic encephalopathy)
acute pancreatitis
inflammation of pancreativ tissue and ducts
overuse of alcohol
mild to severe pain
95% resolution in a few days-few weeks
prolonged cases result in autodigestion of the pancreas
prancreatic neoplasia
benign cysts and tumors
malignante tumors (5 year survival)
occurs most often in AA males
risk factos (smoking, diabetes mellitus, aging)
cholelithiasis (gall stone)
6 F's (fat, fair, fertile, flatulent, forty, and female)
disease of older individuals (>65 years)
females>males
S&S gall stones
pain upper right qudrant
may radiate to the mid upper back
relife pain food pattern