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79 Cards in this Set

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narrative elements
exposition, rising aciton, climax, falling action, denouement
exposition
introduction; sets the scene
rising action
complication; develops a conflict
3 types of conflict
human vs environment, human vs. human, and human vs. self
climax
high point, point of no return; something occurs to alter forever the story's main progression
falling action
reversal, speeds the story to its end
denouement
conclusion; gives the story closure
characterization
a character may be "static" (remains unchanged throughout the story), or "dynamic" (undergoes some kind of personality alteration); also, a character may have "roundness" (complex personality) or "flatness" (little development at all)
protagonist
main character of the story
antagonist
opponent of the protagonist
foil
character whose function is to emphasize the character traits of some other character
tragic hero
protagonist of a tragedy (traditionally, a person of noble birth who suffers a downfall because of a tragic flaw in his personality)
anti-hero
protagonist with villanous qualities
theme
an idea or observation set forth by the story as a universal truth
tone
the attitude of its narrator, his opinion of the characters and events in the story
mood
emotional atmosphere of the story; what a reader feels while he is reading
imagery
description that appeals to the senses
indirect metaphor
comparison is made between two things although one or both may not be explicitly named
conceit
an original comparison is developed more fully in the text
personification
makes an inanimate object sound as if it were human
metonymy
a larger whole- usually an abstract- is represented by one of its parts
synecdoche
usually occurs when a part represents a specific, tangible whole rather than an abstract
balance
can occur in a sentence, a paragraph or stanza, or a whole work; indicates harmony and implies the unity of smaller ideas into a larger; most common "balancing acts" are repetition, paralellism, and antithesis
thematic parallel
what is paralleled in a work is a pair of similar situations or ideas
antithesis
pairing of opposites to make point
rhyme
occurs when two or more words sound the same except for their initial letters
effect of rhyme
connotates a harmony of ideas; keeps its theme unified
rhythm
cadence that a phrase ot series of phrases develops
assonance
the repetition of vowel sounds within words
consonance
repetition of consonant sounds within words
iamib pentameter
an iamb is a metrical foot of two syllables, with the accent on the second syllable. Pentameter signifies that there are five iambs to a line
couplet
two consecutive rhyming lines in a poem (AABBCCDD...)
heroic couplets
two consecutive rhyming lines in a poem that are also in iambic pentameter
sonnet
14 lines of iambic pentameter; features a specific rhyme scheme; serious, usually discursive poem that compacts a unified idea into small space
blank verse
unrhymed iambic pentameter
sprung rhythm
features a variety of set meters and a complex rhyme scheme
free verse
no regular rhyme scheme or meter
ode
praises someone or something still in existence
elegy
honors someone dead
ballad
narrative poem, usually with a tragicomic tone; has an ABCBDEFE thyme scheme
concrete poetry
sometimes called emblematic poetry; forms its words onto pictures on the page; the point is that the picture has something to do with the poem's theme
first person (major character) point of view
has a narrator who is usually the main character of the narrative
first person (minor character) point of view
a character who is not the main focus of the narrative tells the story
third person (observer) point of view
the narrator is not a character in the story, nor does he know the thoughts and feelings of the story's characters
third person (lmiited omniscient) point of view
the narrator, who is not a character in the story, knows only of the main character's thoughts and feelings- no one else's
narrative distance
refers to the narrator's proximity in relation to other characters; a narrator can be physically close (like 1st person narrators) or physically distant (like 3rd person omniscient); a narrator can also be psychologically close (sympathetic with characters) or pschologically distant (cold)
narrative shift
usually manifests itself as a change in verb tense
an author considers three things that go into her voice:
her own style of writing, her audience, and her writing purpose
what do i need to do when reading passages?
ANNOTATE!!!
in poetry...
MARK WHERE THE SENTENCES BEGIN AND END!!!
watch out for
EXCEPT QUESTIONS!!!
modes of poetry
narrative, discursive, imagistic, and lyric
narrative
poem simply tells a story
discursive
an "idea" poem
imagistic
pure image, wishing niether to tell a tale nor formulate a theme
lyric
when a poem's meter and rhyme give it a song-like quality
types of verse (poetry)
rhyming verse, blank verse, and free verse
anastrophe
the inversion of a sentence to better suit rhyme scheme and metrical rhythm
in a poem, keep going until
a comma, a period, or some other punctuation stops you
thee=
you
thy=
your
with nonfiction, first scan and decide what a passage's _____ is, and then what a passage's ____ or _____ is
unifying idea; mode, purpose
persuasive
writer wants to change the reader's mind or convince the audience to take action
pathos
emotional appeal
logos
appeal to logic
ethos
appeal to ethics
expository
simply gives the reader information
descriptive
describes something (usually used in conjunction with other purposes)
narrative
tells a story
4 purposes of nonfiction
persuasive, expository, descriptive, and narrative
ALWAYS
ANNOTATE!!!!!!
to tackle a nonfiction passage...
1. underline helpful passages and make notes
2. determine the unifying idea
3. identify the passage's mode or purpose (persuasive, expository, descriptive, or narrative)
fiction almost always appears in the ___ mode
narrative (tells a story)
when reading fiction, the first thing to do is to identify:
who is the narrator and what point of view does she have?
after you have determined the point of view, you can begin to discover the
tone
in tandem, _____ and narrative description reveal characterization, plot, setting, tone, and theme
dialogue
if you recognize the passage:
don't consider the entire work as you answer questions
there is a _____ between dialogue and narrative description
balance
to tackle a play excerpt
1. read the editorial introduction carefully
2. decipher as much as you can about plot, characterization, tone, and theme