Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key


Play button


Play button




Click to flip

24 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What century was the Puritan time period?
What century was the Revolutionary era?
When was the Romanticism era?
When was the Transcendentalism era?
mid 1800s
When was the Realism era?
When was the Modernism era?
What were the basic Puritan beliefs?
1. Total Depravity (original sin)

2. Unconditional Election (predestination)

3. Limited Atonement (Jesus only died for the chosen, not everyone)

4. Irresistible Grace (grace can't be earned/denied)

5. Perserverance of the Saints (those chosen by god can interpret his will and live good lives)
What was the function of Puritan writers?
1. To transform a mysterious god

2. To make god more relevant

3. To glorify god
Describe the style of Puritan writing.
1. Protestant (against ornateness)

2. Purposeful (all writing had a purpose)

3. Well-grounded in religion
Common Themes in Puritan Writing
1. Idealism
2. Pragmaticism
What were common beliefs of the Revolutionary Period?
1. Faith in natural goodness (humans born pure)

2. Perfectibility of Humans (all situations can be improved)

3. Sovereignty of Reason ("I think therefore I am")

4. Universal Benevolence (help everyone)

5. Social institutions should be modernized
Functions of Revolutionary Writers
1. Interest in classics and Bible

2. Interest in nature

3. Interest in science or scientific experiments

4. Optimism

5. Sense of person's duty to succeed

6. Constant search for self; emphasis on individualism
What did the Deists believe?
God created the unvierse and then disassociated himself from his creation. He can't be accessed through any organized religion, and he has no chosen people.
What are common elements of Romanticism?
1. Frontier (vast expanse, freedom)

2. Optimism

3. Experimentation

4. Mingling of Races

5. Growth of industrialization (N = industry, S = agriculture)
What is the subject matter during the Romanticism era?
1. Quest for beauty

2. Interest in the past

3. Use of fear/terror, grotesque, gothic

4. Escapism

5. Interest in nature (nature as beauty, refuge, or "god" for individual)
Romantic Attitudes
1. Imagination (suspension of disbelief)

2. Emotion over reason (optimism)

3. Subjectivity in form and meaning
Romantic Techniques
1. Remote settings

2. Unlikely plots

3. Inadequate, unlikely characters

4. Authorial subjectivity

5. Socially "harmful morality"
What are the basic beliefs of Transcendentalists?
1. Individual is the spiritual center of the universe

2. The universe is a duplication of the individual self

3. Nature is symbolic

4. Virtue and happiness depend on self-realization

5. Desire to become one with the world
What are the principles of Realism?
1. Defense of the "experienced commonplace"

2. Character is more important than plot

3. Attacks romanticism

4. Emphasizes morality and examines idealism

5. Realism is a realization of democracy
What are identifying characteristics of Realism writing?
1. Purpose is to instruct or entertain

2. Subject matter is from common, average, everyday experiences

3. Morality explores relations between people and society

4. Emphasizes scenic presentation, not authorial comment/evaluation
What are some Realism techniques?
1. Settlings are familiar to the writer

2. Plot emphasizes daily experiences

3. Ordinary characters are studied in depth

4. Author is objective

5. The world is accurately reported
What are some attitudes of modernism?
1. Artist is less appreciated but more sensitive/heroic than most people

2. Artist challenges tradition

3. Breaks away fro patterned responses and predictable forms
What are some themes of Modernism?
1. Collectivism vs. Individualism

2. Impact of Russian Revolution

3. Jazz

4. 19th Amendment (women's suffrage)

5. Prohibition

6. Stock market crash / Great Depression
What were literary achievements of the Modernism era?
1. Showed plight of women

2. Created literature for urban experience

3. Continued rural spirit

4. Continued local color