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84 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
keeping ideas of equal importance in similar grammatical form
parallelism
putting another writer's thoughts into your own words
paraphrase
grammatical distinction made between the speaker, the one spoken to, and the one spoken about
person
technique of changing people's minds or causing people to take action
persuasion
physical position or the mental angle from which a writer beholds a subject
point of view
proposition or assumption that supports a conclusion
premise
form of exposition that most often explains step by step how something is done or how to do something
process analysis
study of using language effectively
rhetoric
question posed for effect
rhetorical question
form of writing that employs wit to attack folly; bring about enlightenment and reform
satire
quality sometimes found in writing that fails to communicate; calls for extreme emotional response on the part of an audience although writer fails to supply adequate reason for reaction
sentimentality
whatever means a writer employs to write effectively
strategy
distinctive manner in which a writer writes; may be seen especially in word choice and sentence structure
style
pleasurable expectation or anxiety the reader feels that keeps him/her reading a story
suspense
three-step form of reasoning that employs deduction
syllogism
seeks meaning beneath the surface of a statement, poem, editorial, picture, advertisement or other text
critical thinking
evidence
data
word or phrase that, originally a figure of speech, has come to be literal through common usage
dead metaphor
method of reasoning from general to particular
deduction
refer to statement of literal and specific meaning or meanings or a word, or to a form of expository writing
definition
mode of writing that conveys the evidence of the senses
description
choice of words
diction
main idea a writer conveys about a subject through description
dominant impression
result of an event or action, usually considered together with cause as a form of exposition; impression a word, sentence, paragraph, or entire work makes upon a reader
effect
stress or special importance given to a certain point or element to make it stand our
emphasis
short nonfiction composition on one central theme or subject in which writer may offer personal views
essay
use of inoffensive language in place of language that readers or listeners may find hurtful, distasteful. frightening, or otherwise objectionable
euphemism
factual basis for an argument or an explanation
evidence
form of exposition in which the writer provides instances of a general idea
example
mode of prose writing that explains a subject
exposition
errors in reasoning that lead to wrong conclusions
fallacies
ideas, conditions, and qualities we cannot directly perceive
abstract
things we can know with our senses
concrete
refers to any person, place, or thing in fact, fiction, or legend that the writer believes is common knowledge
allusion
form of exposition that uses an extended comparison based on the like features of two unlike things
analogy
division; form of expository writing in which the writer separates a subject into its elements or parts
analysis
brief narraive
anecdote
resources writers draw on to connect with and persuade readers
appeals
asks readers to use their intellects and their powers of reasoning
rational appeal
asks readers to respond out of their beliefs, values, or feelings
emotional appeal
asks readers to look favorable on the writer
ethical appeal
principal mode of writing, whose function is to convince readers
argument
readers
audience
form of exposition in which a writer analyzes reasons for an action, event, or decision, or analyzes its consequences
cause and effect
arrangement of events as they occurred or occur in time, first to last
chronological order
proposition that an argument demonstrates; thesis
claim
form of exposition in which a writer sorts out plural things into categories
classification
worn out, trite expression that a writer employs thoughtlessly
cliche
clear connection of the parts in a piece of effective writing
coherence
occur primarily in speech and informal writing; seeks a relaxed, conversational tone
colloquial expression
form of exposition in which a writer examines the similarities and differences between two things to reveal their natures
comparison and contrast
sentences or paragraphs that bring an essay to a satisfying and logical end
conclusions
explicit, literal, dictionary definition of word
denotation
implied meaning, resonant with associations, of word
connotation
writer departs from literal meanings of words for sake of emphasis or vividness
figures of speech
technique of narrative, involves interrupting the sequence of events to recall an earlier event
flashback
narrowing of a subject to make it manageable
focus
very abstract
general
not abstract
specific
statement about class based on an examination of some of its members; induction
generalization
another name for the expository method of giving examples
illustration
word or word sequence that evokes a sensory experience
image
process of reasoning to a conclusion about an entire class by examining some of its members
induction
openings of written works
introductions
manner of speaking or writing that does not directly state a discrepancy, but implies one
irony
special vocabulary of trade or profession; inflated, vague, meaningless language of any kind
jargon
figure of speech in which some significant aspect or detail of an experience is used to represent the whole experience, or something closely related is used place of the thing actually meant
metonymy
describes a conspicuous element, such as a type of incident, device, reference, or formula, which occurs frequently in works of literature
motif
mode of writing that tells a story
narration
emphasis on topic
objective
emphasis on writer's point of view
subjective
refers to a paradoxical utterance which conjoins two terms that in ordinary usage are contraries
oxymoron
statement which seems on its face to be self-contradictory or absurd yet turns out to make good sense
paradox
form of exposition in which a writer examines the similarities and differences between two thing to reveal their natures
comparison and contrast
sentences or paragraphs that bring an essay to a satisfying and logical end
conclusions
judging merits
evaluation
central idea in a work of writing, to which everything else in the work refers
thesis
way a writer expresses his or her regard for subject, audience, or self
tone
name for the statement of the central idea in a paragraph
topic sentence
words, phrases, sentences, or even paragraphs that relate ideas
transitions
quality of good writing in which all parts relate to the thesis
unity
sense of the author's character, personality, and attitude that comes through the words
voice
thinking or assumption that leads from data to claim, favored in some systems of reasoning
warrant
name for a visible object or action that suggests some further meaning
symbol