Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/170

Click to flip

170 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
absurd, theater of the
a form of drama that emphasizes the absurdity of human existence by employing disjoined, repetitious, and meaningless dialogue, purposeless and confusing situations, and plots that lack realistic or logical development
allegory
the representation of abstract ideas or principles by characters, figures, or events in narrative, dramatic, or pictorial form
alliteration
the repetition of the same sounds or of the same kinds of sounds at the beginning of words or in stressed syllables
allusion
a passing/casual reference; an incidental mention of something, either directly or by implication; they may refer to mythology, religion, literature, history, or art
ambiguity
doubtfulness or uncertainty as regards interpretation
anachronism
an event, object, custom, person, or thing that is out of its natural order in time
analogy
a similarity between like features of two things, on which a comparison may be based
anapest
a metrical foot composed of two short syllables followed by one long one

ex: interfere
anastrophe
inversion of the normal syntactic order of words
anticlimax
an event, conclusion, statement that is far less important, powerful, or stricking than expected
antihero
a protagonist who lacks the attributes that make a heroic figure, as nobility of mind and spirit, a life or attitude marked by action or purpose, and the like; they are typically in conflict with a world they can't control or whose values they reject
antiphrasis
the use of a word or phrase in a sense contrary to its normal meaning for ironic or humorous effect

ex: a mere babe of 40 years
antithesis
the direct opposite

ex: Her behavior was the very antithesis of cowardly.
aphorism
a terse saying embodying a general truth, or astute observation

ex: Power tends to corrupt, and absolute power corrupts absolutely
apologue
an allegorical narrative usually intended to convey a moral

ex: pandora's box
apostrophe
a digression in the form of an address to someone not present, or to a personified object or idea

ex: "O Death, where is thy sting?”
archetype
the original model, form, or pattern from which something develops

ex: romeo and juliet -> westside story
assonance
rhyme in which the same vowel sounds are used with different consonants in the stressed syllables of the rhyming words
bathos
An abrupt, unintended transition in style from the exalted to the commonplace, producing a ludicrous effect; anticlimax

ex: "osama bin laden is wanted for conspiracy, murder, terrosim, and unpaid parking tickets."
beat generation
A group of American writers and artists popular in the 1950s and early 1960s, influenced by Eastern philosophy and religion and known especially for their use of nontraditional forms and their rejection of conventional social values.
Bildungsroman
a type of novel concerned with the education, development, and maturing of a young protagonist
blank verse
(unrhymed iambic pentameter)

unrhumed lines of 10 syllables each with the even-numbered syllables bearing the accents
broadside
a sheet of paper printed only on one side, and usually distributed by hand
cacophony
a jarring, discordant sound

(opposite of euphony)
caesurae
a pause in a line of verse dictated by sense or natural speech rhythm rather than by metrics
canon
A group of literary works that are generally accepted as representing a field; the books of the Bible recognized by any Christian church as genuine
canto
one of the main or larger divisions of a long poem
catalog
A publication, such as a book or pamphlet, containing such a list or display
catharsis
the purging of the emotions or relieving of emotional tensions, esp. through certain kinds of art, as tragedy or music
cavalier
A gallant or chivalrous man, especially one serving as escort to a woman of high social position; a gentleman
chiasmus
A rhetorical inversion of the second of two parallel structures

ex: “Each throat/Was parched, and glazed each eye”
chivalry
an idealized code of military and social behavior for the aristocracy in the late medieval period
chorus
a group of singers that helps the audience to follow the performance, comment on the main themes, and to show how the idea audience might react to the drama presented
cinquain
a five line stanza, varied in rhyme in line, usually witht he rhyme scheme ABABB
cliche
a phrase, expression, or idea that has been overused to the point of losing its intended force or novelty (negative)
climax
the point of highest tension or drama in a literary work or film
colloquialism
an expression not used in formal speech or writing

ex: ain't, gonna
comedy, low
a type of comedy characterized by horseplay, slapstick, farce
comedy, high
sophisticated comedy that depends on witty dialogue, social satire, and sophisticated characters for impact
complication
a secondary, minor conflict introduced part of the way through a story or drama; a series of difficulties forming the central action in a narrative
connotation
a maethod of determining the meaning by finding attributes implied by the word

ex: gold - greed, luxury
consonance
the repetition of consonant sounds in a short sequence of words
dactyl
a metrical foot consisting of three syllables, one accented syllable followed by two unaccented syllables

ex: TIMElessly
denotation
the precise, literal meaning of a word, w/o emotional associations or overtones
denouement
unraveling, as of a knot; the final resolution to the conflicts and complications of a play, novel, short story
deux es machina
in moderan drama, and fiction, any forced or artificial device introduced by an author to solve some difficult problem with the resolution of a plot; Latin phrase to describe the unexpected

ex: protagonist wakes up and realizes it was all a dream
diction
word choice, judged on clarity and appropiateness
didactic literature
poetry, plays, novels, and stories whose primary purpose is to guide, instruct, or teach
digression
a portion of a speech or written work that interrupts the development of the theme or plot
dimeter
a line of poetry consisting of two metrical feet
discourse
spoken or written language, including literary works
enjambment
the carrying of sense and grammatical structure in a poem beyond the end of one line, couplet, or stanza and into the next
epic
An extended narrative poem in elevated or dignified language, celebrating the feats of a legendary or traditional hero
epic theater
episodic, narrative theater; an approach to writing and presenting plays; large number of very short, often unconnected scenes introduced by a narrator, who would present the action as events in the past in order to distance the audience from the characters
epigram
in poetry and prose, any terse, witty, pointed saying; they often pair opposing or contradictory ideas
epilogue
a concluding section added to a novel, play, or long poem
epiphany
a moment of revelation or profound insight
epistolary novel
a novel written in the form of a series of letters
epithet
any word or phrase applied to a person or thing to describe an actual or attributed quality; also means a derogatory word or phrase used to insult someone

ex: man's best friend -> dog
eulogy
a speech or writing in praise of a person or thing, esp. a set oration in honor of a deceased person
euphony
agreeableness of sound; pleasing effect to the ear, esp. a pleasant sounding or harmonious combination or succession of words
exegesis
critical explanation or interpretation of a text or portion of a text, esp. of the Bible
existentialism
a philosophy that focuses on the individual human being's experience of, recognition of, and triumph over the meaningless of existence
exposition
the immediate or gradual revelation to the audience of the setting, relationship between characters, and other background info needed for understanding the plot; traditionally in the beginning of the play, either int he speech of one character, or in a convo
fabliau
a medieval tale in eight-syllable verse

humorous, often bawdy, it is frequently satirized women and the clergy
falling action
the part of a literary plot that occurs after the climax has been reached and the conflict has been resolved
feminine rhyme
A rhyme in which the final syllable is unstressed
figurative language
speech or writing that departs from literal meaning in order to achieve a special effect or meaning, speech or writing employing figures of speech; appeals to the senses
flashback
a scene from the past, taken out of chronological order, is placed within the story
foil
a person or thing that makes another seem better by contrast
foot
A unit of poetic meter consisting of stressed and unstressed syllables in any of various set combinations
foreshadowing
To present an indication or a suggestion of beforehand; presage
form
Method of arrangement or manner of coordinating elements in literary or musical composition or in organized discourse
formalism
the doctrine that formal structure rather than content is what should be represented
free verse
Verse composed of variable, usually unrhymed lines having no fixed metrical pattern
Freytag's pyramid
a diagram representing the structure of a well made play, especially a tragedy in five acts

ex: exposition, inciting incident, rising action, climax, falling action, resolution, denouement
genre
a type of literary work
gestalt
a unified whole that is greater than the sum of its parts; a poem must be experienced as a unified whole
grotesque
generally anthing distored, ugly, abnormal, fantastic, or bizarre to the point of being ludicrous or absurd

a type of writing, kind of character, kind of subject matter that is characterized by exaggerationa nd sitortion of the natural or the expected
heptameter
a line of poetry consisting of seven metrical feet
heroic couplet
a pair of rhyming iambic pentameter lines, the favored verse form of the 18th century neoclassicla poets
heroic quatrain
a four-line stanza in iambic pentameter, rhyming ABAB
Homeric simile
another term for epic similie, a lengthy, very elaborate simile
hubris
Greek word for pride or insolence; the defect of a character that leads the tragic hero to disregard all warnings of impending disaster and thereby hasten the catastrophe
humanism
any system of thought or action devoted to human interests rather than to religious ideals or to the animal world
humors, the theory of
the four basic fluids of the body: BLOOD, PHLEGM, YELLOW BILE, BLACK BILE

affect a person's physical condition and disposition
hyperbole
obvious exaggeration or overstatement, not intended to be taken literally, but used figuratively to creat humor or emphasis
iambic pentameter
a poetic line of five iambic feet; in black verse, sonnet, heroic couplet
imagery
the making of "pictures in words"; the pictorial quality of a literary work achieved through a collection of images
inference
a general conclusion drawn from particulars
in medias res
Latin, meaning "in the middle of things"

narrative practice of starting a sotry in the middle of the action to involve the reader, then using flashbacks to fill in what led up to the point
innuendo
an insinuation, the implication of hint of something derogatory; device of satire
intentional fallacy
a literary work is separate, a thing in itself, and shouldn't be judged by external evidence; a work lies wholly within itself
internal rhyme
the rhyming of two or more words int he same line of poetry, most often in the middle and at the end of the line (middle/leonine rhyme)
inversion
reversing the normal order of sentence parts; commonly used to ask a question, impose a condition, place emphasis

ex: destroying others, by himself destroyed
invocation
at the beginning of an epic, an appeal to a god or goddess for inspiration
irony
the recognition of the incongruity or difference between reality and appearance
jongleur
a wandering entertainer in France and Norman England during the Middle Ages who sang and recited poems and stories and performed juggling and tumbling acts
Juvenalian satire
harsh, biting satire, full of moral indignationa nd bitter contempt
Kenning
a metaphoric compound word or phrase used as a synonym for a common noun (Old English)

ex: storm of swords -> battle
Kunstlerroman
"Artist-novel", a type of Bildungsroman, or developmental novel, that tells the story of an artist's development
Lair
poem of adventure or romance intended to be sung
Leitmotif
used to describe any recurring theme in a literary or musical work
Leonine rhyme
a rhymed couplet printed as a single line
Libretto
the complete study of works used in an extended musical work such as an opera
light verse
poetry that attempts to be humorous, often including puns, alliteration, and adventurous rhyme
litotes
a literary technique that uses the negation of the opposite to make a statement

ex: "no ordinary city" instead of "an extraordinary city"

"dont fail me now" instead of "help me"
Macaronic
the use ofa mixture of multiple languages
malapropism
the use of the wrong word, specifically using a word that sounds similar to the correct word for a comic effect

ex: he is the very pineapple of politeness (pinnacle)

The Rivals - Ms Malaprop

feather-brained lady who possessed a glib tongue. In her efforts to represent the crème de society she appeared comical due to her ludicrous substitution of words
meiosis
a form of understatement that tries to make something seem smaller or less significant than it actually is
metaphor
A figure of speech in which a word or phrase that ordinarily designates one thing is used to designate another, thus making an implicit comparison
metaphysical poetry
a term used to group together certain 17th century poets - share common characteristics of wit, inventiveness, and a love of elaborate stylistic maneuvers

investigates the world by rational discussion of its phenomena rather than by intuition of mysticism
meter
poetic measure; arrangement of words in regularly measured, patterned, or rhythmic lines or verses
metonymy
the substitution of one word for another with which it is associated
mimesis
imitation or representation in Greek; representing the human emotions in new ways and thus representing to the onlooker the inherent nature of these emotions and the psychological truth of the work of art
mock epic
a parody of the epic form in poetry, often by treating a minor subject serious (mock heroic)
monody
Greek ode sung by a single voice, as in a tragedy

a poem in which the speaker laments another's death
morphology
the study of the structure and form of words in language or a language, including inflection, derivation, and the formation of compounds
muckrakers
given by Theodore Roosevelt

group of American writers in the first decade of the 20th century who exposed the corrupt practicies of certain big businesses and government officials
muses
source of poetic inspiration, the nice daughets of Zeus and Mnemosyne

Calliope- epic poetry
Clio- history
Erato- lyric and love poetry
Euterpe- flute music
Melpomene- tragedy
Thalia- comedy
Polymnia- sacred music
Terpischore- dancing
Uranic- Astronomy
narrative poem
a poem that tells a story, lengthy
naturalism
late 19th century movement in lit and art which moved away from realism; portrays humans as being affected by natural forces of heredity and environment, and by basic drives over which they have no control

rejects idealized portrayls of life, and attempts to portray a scientifically accurate depiction of life as a struggle of survive

ex: Maggie: A Girl of the Streets
nom de plume
a name adopted by a writer to disguise his or her own real name
onomatopoeia
the formation of a word by imitating a natural sound
ottava rima
an eight-line stanza of iambic pentameter rhyming ABABABCC
oxymoron
a figure of speech in which opposite or contradictory ideas are combined
paradox
a statement that appears contradictory or absurd, however it expresses some truth
pentameter
a line of verse containing five feet or measures (iambic pentameter)
persona
used in literary criticism to refer to the voice or mask created by the author, through which the story is told (can be implied author)
petrarchan sonnet
sonnet arranged in two parts: the OCTAVE (first 8 lines and rhyming abba abba) and the SESTET (remaining 6 lines rhymining cde cde)

(Italian Sonnet)
phonology
study of the basic speech sounds, branch of linguistics
picaresque
a novel whose principal character is a low-born rogue who becomes involved in one predicament after another; journey
post-structuralism
1970s covered several approaches to literary criticism: deconstruction, reader-response criticism, psychoanalytic criticism, feminist criticism
primitivism
doctrine that primitive people are superior to modern humankind, who have been corrupted by civilization
prologue
an introduction or preface, especially to a play
prose
all form of ordinary writing and speech lackign the sustained and regular rhythmic patterns found in poetry; plain, straightforward statement found in everyday speech
proverb
short saying that expresses some commonplace truth or bit of folk wisdom concerning some aspect of practical life
pun
the humorous use of a word or phrase so as to emphasize or suggest its different meanings or applications, or the use of words that are alike or nearly alike in sound but different in meaning, a play on words
quatrain
poem or a stanza within a poem that consists of four lines (common in European poetry)
requiem
a chant or a poem for the dead (elegy)
rhetoric
the art of persuasion, in speaking or writing: invention, arrangement, style, memory, delivery
rhyme scheme
the pattern of rhymes in a stanza or poem, usually indicated by leters of the alphabet
romanticism
a movement in art and literature in the 18th and 19th centuries in revolt against the neoclassicism of the previous centuries
sarcasm
harsh, cutting, personal remarks to or about someone, not necessarily ironic
scansion
analyzing the meter in lines of poetry by counting and marking the accented and unaccented syllables, dividing the lines into metricla feet, and showint eh major pauses, if any, within the line
semiotics
the study of signs, or signals of communication, including words

ex: morse code, music, traffic signals, gestures, facial expressions, clothing...
seven deadly sins
sins that lead to spiritual deaths, namely pride, envy, wrath, sloth, avarice, gluttony, lust
Shakespearean sonnet
sonnet that is arranged into three quatrains, rhyming abab, cdcd, efef, gg
simile
a figure of speech in which two essentially unlike things are compared, often in a phrase introduced by like or as
slant rhyme
rhyme in which either the vowels or the consonants of stressed syllables are identical (half rhyme, imperfect rhyme, near rhyme)

ex: eyes, light
years yours
life type
stanza
a unit within a larger poem
structuralism
linguistics defined as the analysis of formal structures in a text or discourse
style
a writer's characteristic way of writing things
symbol
the conscious and artful use of symbols, objects, actions, or characters meant to be taken both literally and as representative
synecdoche
A figure of speech in which a part is used for the whole (as hand for sailor), the whole for a part (as the law for police officer), the specific for the general (as cutthroat for assassin), the general for the specific (as thief for pickpocket)
syntax
the arrangement and grammatical relation of words, phrases, and clauses in sentences
tanka
a Japanese poetry type of five lines, the firsta nd third composed of five syllables and the rest of seven
tercet
(triplet) a group of three lines usually having the same rhyme
tetrameter
a line of poetry composed of four metrical feet
theme
central or dominating idea of a work
tone
the reflection in a work of an author's attitude toward his/her subject, characters, readers
tragedy
broadly, a serious work of fiction, especially a drama, that prevents the downfall of its protagonist who through some error in judgement, weakness of character, or twist of fate suffers from crushing defeat or death
tracendentalism
philosophical/literary movement flourishing between 1835-1860 in New England; something in human beings that transcends human nature, a spark of divinity
trilogy
a set of three related plays, novels, etc which together form an extended unified work
trochee
a metrical unit with stressed-stressed-unstressed syllables
verisimilitude
denotes the extent to which the characters and actions in a work of fiction exhibit realism or authenticity, or otherwise conform to our sense of reality
vernacular
the everyday or common language of a geographic area or the native language of commoners in a country as opposed to a prestigious dead language maintained artificially in schools or in literary texts
verse
1. a line of metrical writing
2. a stanza
3. any composition written in meter
voice
refers to the fact that there is a voice beyond the fictitious voices that speak in a work, and a person behind all the dramatis personae, including even the first person narrator
wit
elements in a literary work designed to make the audience laugh or feel amused (humor)