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110 Cards in this Set

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Imagism
A movment in American and English poetry begun in 1912 by Ezra Pound. Pound sought to free poetry from the stale conventions and high-flown language of the past.

The basic principles of Imagism were:
1. direct concentration on the precise image
2. use of precise words and language of common speech
3. creation of new rhythms (and use of free verse)
4. freedom of choice of subject
Imagery
Words or phrases that create pictures, or images, in the reader's mind.
Irony
A contrast or an incongruity between what is stated and what is meant, or between what is expected to happen and what actually happens.

1. VERBAL- writer or speaker says one thing and means something entirely different

2. DRAMATIC: reader or audience perceives something that a chracter in the story or play does not know

3. SITUATIONAL- the writer shows a discrepancy between the expected result of some action or situation and its actual result
Local Color
The use of specific dtails describing the dialect, dress, customs, and scenery associated with a particular region or sextion of the country.
Metaphor
A figure of speech that makes a DIRECT comparison between two things which are basically dissimlar. Remember that a metaphor does NOT make use of connective words such as like or as
Metonymy
A figure of speech in which something very closely associated witha thing is used to stand for or suggest the thing itself.
Hardhat is used to mean construction worker and White House is used to mean the president
Monologue
An extended speech by a character in a play, short story, novel or narrative poem.
Mood
The prevailing feeling or emotional climate of a litery work, often develped, at least in part, thourgh descriptions of the setting
Motif
A recurring feature (such as a name, an image, or a phrase) in a work of literature.
Narration
The kind of writing or speaking that tells a story.
Narrative Poem
A poem that tells a story
Naturalism
An extreme form of realism in literature that depicts characters who are severely limited by their enviroment or heredity
Onomatopoeia
The use of a word whose sound in some degree imitates or suggests its meaning
Oxymoron
A figure of speech that combines opposite or contradictory ideas or terms, as in "living death, "honest thief", and "sweet sorrow". An oxymoron suggests a PARADOX
Parallelism
The use of phrases, clauses, or sentences that are similar or complentary in structure or in meaning.
Paradox
A statement that reveals a kind of truth, although it seems at first to be self-contradictory and untrue
Parallelism
The use of phrases, clauses, or sentences that are similar or complementary in structure or in meaning
Pathos
The quality in a work of literature that arouses a feeling of pity, or sorrow, or compassion in the reader
Personification
A figure of speech in which something nonhuman is given human qualities
Plot
The sequence of events or actions in a short story, novel, play, or narrative poem.
Point of View
FIRST PERSON: story is told by one of the characters in his/her own words and the reader is told only what that character knows

THIRD PERSON LIMITED: focuses on only one chracter in the story

THIRD PERSON OMNISCIENT: all knowing comments on all characters and actions in a story
Protagonist
The central character of a drama, novel, short story, or narrative poem
Pun
The use of a word or phrase to suggest two or more meanings at the smae time, or the use of two different words or phrases that sound alike
Realism
The attempt in literature and art to represent life as it really is, without sentimentalizing or idealizing it. Accurate representation without idealization
Rhetoric
The art of using language for persuasion. Most common rhetorical device is the RHETORICAL QUESTION- a question suggesting its own answer or not requiring an answer
Rhyme
The repetition of sounds in two or more words or phrases that appear close to each other in a poem
Internal Rhyme
Internal rhyme occurs within a line of poetry.

"To the rhyming and chiming of the bells."
`
Satire
A kind of writing that holds up to ridicule or contempt the weaknesses and wrondoings of individuals, groups, institutions, or humanity in general.
Setting
The time and place in which events in a short story, novel, play, or narrative poem occur
Similie
A figure of speech comparing two essentially unlike things through the use of a specific word of comparison, such as like or as.
Soliloquy
An extended speech, usually in a drama, delivered by a character alone onstage
Stanza
A unit of a poem that is longer than a single line
Stream of Consciousness
The style of writing that attempts to imitate the natural flow of a character's thoughts, feelings, reflrections, memories, and mental images, as the character experiences them.
Style
A writer's characteristic way of writing, determined by the choice of words, the arrangement of words in sentences,a nd the relationship of the sentences to one another.
Symbol
An object, person, place, or action that has a meaning in itself and that also stands for something larger than itself, such as a quality, an attitude, a belief, or a value.
Symbolism
A literary movement that arose inFrance in the last half of the 19th century and that greatly influenced many English/American writers of the 20th century
Synecdoche
A figure of speech in which part of a thing is used to stand for or suggest the whole.
Theme
The general idea or insight about life that a writer wishes to convey in a literary work
Tone
The attitude a writer takes toward his or her subject, characters, and readers
Tragedy
In general, a literary work in which the protagonist meets an unhappy or disasterous end
Transcendentalism
A philosophy which holds that basic truths can be reached through intuition rather than through reason
Understatement
A restrained statement in which less is said than is menat
Vernacular
The everyday spoken language of people in a particular locality, and writing that imitates or suggests such language
Voice
A language style adopted by an author to create the effect of a particular speaker
Ambiguity
The expression in a single term or phrase of more than one meaning
Aside
A comment made by a chracter onstage to the audience or another character but which is not heard by all characters onstage
Atmosphere
The dominant mood or feeling conveyed by a piece of writing
Ballad
A narrative song or poem
2 kinds:
FOLK: passed down by oral tradition
LITERARY: written in same formas as folk, wrriten from the beginning
Bias
the author's personal inclination toward a position or topic
Caesura
a pause in a line of poetry
Denotation
The literal, or dictionary, meaning of a word
Description
A detailed portrayal of a person, a place, an object, or an event
Dialect
A variation of a language spoken by a particular group, often within a particular region and time
Elegy
a poem mourning a death or other great loss
Epic
a long narrative poem that traces the adventures of a hero
Epigram
a short, witty poem; a saying.
Ephphany
the sudden intuitive recognition of the meaning or essence of seomthing
Exemplum
a brief story that illustrates a moral point by serving as an example
Exposition
at the beginning of a story, novel, or other narrative, the part of the plot line that sets the scene by introducing the character, setting, and situation
Fable
a short, usually simple tale that teachers a moral and sometimes uses animal figures
Figurative Language
language used for descriptive effect, in order to convey ideas or emotions. figurative expressions are not literally true but express some truth beyond the ltieral level
Flashback
an interruption in the chronological order of a narrative to show an event that happened earleir
Flash Foward
an interruption in the chronological sequence of a narrative to leap foward in time
Folktale
an anonymous traditional story passed down orally long before being written down. these would include fiary tales, myths, and legends
foot
the basic unit in the measuremnt of a line of metrical poetry
frame story
a plot structure that includes the telling of one story within another stoyr. the frame is the outer story and precedes the more important inner story
genre
a category or type of literature. poetry, drama, fiction, and nonfiction are examples
iambic pentameter
a specific poetic meter in which eash line is composed of five efeet, most of which are iambs
internal rhyme
rhyme that occurs within a single line of poetyr
inversion
reversal of the usual word order in a prose sentence or aline of poetry
juxtaposition
the placing of two or more distinct things side by side in order to contrast or compre them
memoir
an account of an event or period empahsizing the narrator's own experience of it
meter
a regular pattern of stressed and unstressed syllables that gives a line of poetry a more or less predictable rhtym. the basic unit of meter is the FOOT
moral
a practical lesson about right and wrong conduct
myth
a traditional story that deals with goddesses, gods, heroes,a nd supernatural forces. a myth may explain a belief, a custom, or a force of nature
Ode
an elaborate lyric poem expressed in a dignified and sincere way
oral tradition
literature that passes down by word of mouth from one generation to the next
parable
a simple story pointing to a moral or religios lesson
parody
a humorous imitation of another literary work
regionalism
an empahsis on themes, characters, and settings from a particular geographical region
rhyme scheme
the pattern that end rhymes form in a stanza or poem
romanticism
an artistic movement that valued imagination and feeling over intellect and reason
sarcasm
satire or irony that often uses bitter and caustic language to point out shortcomings or flaws
sonnet
a lyric poem of 14 lines, typically written in iambic pentameter and usually following strict patterns of stanza divisions and rhymes
stereotype
a character who is not developed as an individiaul, but instead represents a collection of tratis and mnnerism supposedly shared by all memebers of a group
allegory
a tale in prose or verse in which characters, actions, or settings represent abstract ideas or moral qualities. an allegory has two meanings- a literal meaning and a symbolic meaning
alliteration
the repition of similar sounds, usually consonants, in a group of words
allusion
a reference to a person, a place, an event, or a literary work that a writer expects a reader to recognize
analogy
a comparison made between two things to show the similarities between them
anecdote
a very short story that is told to make a oint
antagonist
person or force opposing the protagonist in a drama or narrative
assonance
the repetition of similar vowel sounds, especially in poetry
apostrophe
a figure of speech in which an absent or dead person, an abstract quality (such as personification), or something inanimate or nonhuman is addressed directly
aphorism
a terse, pointed statement expressing some wisw or clever observation about life
autobiography
a person's account of his or her own life
blank verse
written in unryhymed iambic pentameter
character
a person- or an animal, a thing, or a natural force presented as a person- appearing in a literary work.

ROUND- well developed, many tratis
FLAT- have only 1 or 2 distinguishing traits
climax
the decisive point in a narrative or drama; the point of greatest intensity or interest
conceit
a kind of metaphor that makes a comparison between two startlingly different things
comedy
in general, a literary work that ends happily
conflict
a struggle between two opposing forces or characters in a short story, novel, play or narrative poem

EXTERNAL- between two persons, between person and society, between a person and nature

INTERNAL- two elements struggling for mastery within a person
couplet
two consecutive lines of poetry that rhyme
denouement
the outcome of a plot
diciton
a writer's choice of words, particularly for clarity, effectiveness, and precision
epithet
a descriptive name or phrase used to characterize someone or something
figure of speech
a word or expression that is not meant to be interpreted in a ltieral sense
foil
a character who sets off another character by contrast. foils help us in drawing comparisons
foreshadowing
the use of hints or clues in a narrative to suggest what acion is to come
free verse
unrhymed verse that has either no metrical pattern or an irregular pattern
hyperbole
a figureof speech using exaggeration, or overstatement, for special effect