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77 Cards in this Set

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The repetition of initial consonant sounds (e.g. silence surged softly).
alliteration
A reference to a well-known person, place, event, literary work, or work of art.
allusion
Something out of its normal time period.
anachronism
A comparison that explains or describes one subject by pointing out its similarities to another subject.
analogy
A brief story about an interesting, amusing, or strange event. It is told to entertain of to make a point.
anecdote
A character or force in conflict with a main character, or protagonist.
antagonist
Involves a direct contrast or structurally parallel word groupings, generally for the purpose of contrast (e.g. sink or swim).
antithesis
A general truth or observation about life, usually stated concisely and pointedly (e.e. a penny saved is a penny earned).
aphorism
A figure of speech in which a speaker directly addresses an absent person of a personified quality (e.g. “Oh Death, where is thy sting?”).
apostrophe
This term is applied to an image, a descriptive detail, a plot pattern or a character type that occurs frequently in literature, myth, religion, or folklore and is, therefore, believed to evoke profound emotion because it touches the unconscious memory and thus calls into play illogical but strong responses.
archetype
Words spoken by a character in a play to the audience or to another character that are not suppose to be over heard by the others on stage in the scene.
aside
The repetition of vowel sounds followed by different consonants in two of more stressed syllables (e.g. purple curtain; young love).
assonance
A person, animal, or natural force presented as a person appearing in a literary work.
a. Dynamic character – one which undergoes change.
b. Static character – one which stays the same.
c. Flat character – one which has only one of two personality traits; is one dimensional and can be summed up in a single phrase.
Rounds character – one which has man y dimensions to his or her personality one which is multi-faceted and complex.
character
The point of greatest emotion or suspense in a plot; the high point.
climax
An expression used in informal conversation but not accepted universally in formal speech or writing. It lies between the upper level of dignified, formal, academic, or “literary” language and the lower level of slang.
colloquialism
A struggle between opposing forces or characters in a literary work.
a. external – conflict between persons, between a person anad nature, or between a person and society
b. internal – conflict within a person struggling for mastery within their own mind.
conflict
The repetition in two or more words of final consonants in stressed syllables (e.g. east and west).
consonance
An image or metaphor which runs throughout a work.
controlling image
Two consecutive lines of poetry that rhyme.
couplet
When all of the problems or mysteries of the plot are unraveled; resolution.
denouement
A portrait in words of a person, place or object.
description
The facts given by the author or speaker as support for the attitude or tone.
details
The form of a language spoken by people in a particular region or members of a particular group.
dialect
A conversation between characters.
dialog
Word choice. To discuss a writer’s diction is to consider the vocabulary used, the appropriateness of the words, and the vividness of the language.
diction
A sudden understanding or realization which prior to the occurrence was not thought of or understood.
epiphany
An adjective or other descriptive phrase that is regularly used to characterize a person, place, or thing (e.g. Alexander the Great; Honest Abe)
epithet
A device where being indirect replaces directness to avoid unpleasantness (e.g. garbage man = sanitation engineer; died = pass away).
euphemism
The action that follows the climax; leading to the resolution.
falling action
Writing or speech not meant to be interpreted literally (e.g. simile, metaphor, personification, etc.).
figurative language
A section of a literary work that interrupts the sequence of events that have yet to occur.
foreshadowing
A deliberate exaggeration or overstatement for special effect.
hyperbole
A special use of words, a grammatical construction peculiar to a given language or an expression that cannot be translated literally into a second language (e.g. “You’re pulling my leg.”).
idiom
A change in the normal word order.
inversion
The general name given to literary techniques that involce differences between appearance and reality, expectation and result, or meaning and intention.
a. dramatic irony – a contradiction between what a character thinks and what the reader or audience knows to be true.
b. Situational irony – a type of irony in which an event occurs that directly contrasts the expectations of the characters, the reader, or the audience.
c. Verbal irony – a type of irony in which words are used to suggest the opposire of what is meant.
irony
A poetic and rhetorical device in which normally unassociated ideas, words, or phrases are placed next to each other.
juxtaposition
Words used in their ordinary sense; the opposite of figurative language.
literal language
The use of specific details describing the dialect, dress, customs, and scenery associated with a particular region or section of the country.
local color
A figure of speech in which one thing is spoken of as though it were something else (e.g. Life is a broken-winged bird).
metaphor
A generally regular pattern of stressed and unstressed syllables in poetry.
meter
A figure of speech in which the name of one object is substituted for that of another closely associated with it (e.g. The White House issued a statement today.).
metonymy
An extended speech by one character in a play, story, or poem.
monologue
A simple device that serves as a basis for an expanded narrative (e.g. A rose is a motif that runs through many poems).
motif
A reason that explains or partially explains a character’s thoughts, feelings, actions, or behavior.
motivation
A speaker or character who tells a story; can be either a character or an outside observer.
a. First-person narrator – a character who tells the story from within the story and who gives the reader what he or she hears, sees, thinks, etc.
Omniscient narrator – an all-knowing third-person narrator.
narrator
The use of words that imitate sound.
onomatopoeia
A figure of speech that combines two opposing or contradictory ideas (e.g. jumbo shrimp; big baby).
oxymoron
A statement which seems contradictory or absurd but which expresses a truth.
paradox
The repetition of a grammatical structure.
parallelism
A type of figurative language in which a nonhuman subject is given human characteristics.
personification
The sequence of events of actions in a literary work.
plot
The vantage point from which the story is told.
a. First-person – the story is told by one of the characters in his or her own words, and the reader is told only what this character knows, feels, and obverses.
b. Third-person limited – a narrator who tells the story giving only a limited amount of information or information about the inner-feelings of just one character; not all-knowing.
Third-person omniscient – an all-knowing observer who describes and comments on all of the characters and actions of the story.
point of view
The central character of a drama, novel, short story, or narrative poem.
protagonist
A play on words based on different meanings of words that sound alike.
pun
A stanza or poem made up of four lines, usually with a definite rhythm and rhyme scheme.
quatrain
A word, phrase, line, or group of lines repeated regularly in a poem, usually at the end of each stanza.
refrain
The use, more than once, of any element of language; a sound, a word, a phrase, a clause, or a sentence.
repetition
The art of using word effectively in speech or writing.
rhetoric
A change in tone, attitude, etc.; may follow words like but, however, even though, although yet, etc.
rhetorical shift
The repetition of sounds in two or more words or phrases that appear close to each other in a poem.
a. approximate/slant rhyme - two words alike in some sounds, but do not rhyme exactly (e.g. now and know).
b. end rhyme - occuring at the end of lines.
c. internal rhyme - occuring within a line.
rhyme
the pattern of end rhymes
rhyme scheme
the arrangement of stressed and unstressed syllables in a pattern.
rhythm
a type of irony in which a person appears to be praising something but is actually insulting it.
sarcasm
writing or speech that appeals to one or more of the senses; imagery.
sensory language
the time and place of the action of a literary work.
setting
a figure of speech in which like or as is used to make a comparison between two basically unlike subjects (e.g. She is as flighty as a sparrow.).
simile
an extended speech, usually in a drama, delivered by a character alone on stage,
soliloquy
a group of lines in a poem, considered as a unit
stanza
a second, less important plot within a story
subplot
a conclusion that violates the expectations of the reader but in a way that is both logical and believable.
surprise ending
anything that stands for or represents something else; an object that serves as a symbol has its own meaning, but also represents abstract ideas (e.g. rose = love; flag = country).
symbol
a figure of speech in which a part of something is used to represent the whole (e.g. stars and stripes = U.S. flag).
synecdoche
the arrangement of words in a senetence; sentence structure.
syntaz
a statement of opinion that is the writer's focus or main idea.
thesis
saying less than is actually meant, generally in an ironic way; opposite of hyperbole.
understatement/litotes
everyday spoken language of people in a particular locality, and writing that imitates or suggests such language and word choice.
vernacular
similar to truth
verisimilitude