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72 Cards in this Set

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allegory
A narrative or description having a second meaning beneath the surface one
Anapest
A metrical foot consisting of two unaccented syllables followed by one accented syllable (for example, un-der-stand)
Anaphora
Repetition of an opening word or phrase in a series of lines
Apostrophe
A figure of speech in which someone absent or dead or something nonhuman is addressed as if it were alive and present and could reply
Aubade
A poem about dawn; a morning love song; or a poem about the parting of lovers at dawn
Caesura
A speech pause occurring within a line
Connotation
What a word suggests beyond its basic definition; a word's overtones of meaning
Continuous form
That form of a poem in which the lines follow each other without formal grouping, the only breaks being dictated by units of meaning
Dactyl
A metrical foot consisting of one accented syllable followed by two unaccented syllables
ex: sym met try
Denotation
The basic definition or dictionary meaning of a word.
Dramatic framework
The situation, whether actual or fictional, realistic or fanciful, in which an author places his or her characters in order to express the theme
Duple meter
A meter in which a majority of the feet contain two syllables. Iambic and trochaic are both duple meters
English/Shakespearean Sonnet
A sonnet rhyming ababcdcdefefgg. Its content or structure ideally parallels the rhyme scheme, falling into three coordinate quatrains and a concluding couplet; but it is often structured, like the Italian sonnet, into octave and sestet, the principal break in thought coming at the end of the eighth line
Extended/sustained figure
A figure of speech (usually metaphor, simile, personification, or apostrophe) sustained or developed through a considerable number of lines or through a whole poem
extra-metrical syllables
In metrical verse, extra unaccented syllables added at the beginnings or endings of lines
feminine rhyme
A rhyme in which the repeated accented vowel is in either the second or third last syllable of the words involved
fixed form
Any form of poem in which the length and pattern are prescribed by previous usage or tradition, such as sonnet, limerick, villanelle, and so on
folk ballad
A narrative poem designed to be sung, composed by an anonymous author, and transmitted orally for years or generations before being written down
Blank verse
Unrhymed iambic pentameter
free verse
Nonmetrical poetry in which the basic rhythmic unit is the line, and in which pauses, line breaks, and formal patterns develop organically from the requirements of the individual poem rather than from established poetic forms
heard rhythm
The actual rhythm of a metrical poem as we hear it when it is read naturally. The heard rhythm mostly conforms to but sometimes departs from or modifies the expected rhythm
iamb
A metrical foot consisting of one unaccented syllable followed by one accented syllable (for example, re-hearse)
internal rhyme
A rhyme in which one or both of the rhyme words oc-cur(s) within the line
irony
A situation, or a use of language, involving some kind of incongruity or discrepancy
verbal irony
A figure of speech in which what is meant is the opposite of what is said
dramatic irony
A device by which the author implies a different meaning from that intended by the speaker (or by a speaker) in a literary work
irony of a situation
A situation in which there is an incongruity between actual circumstances and those that would seem appropriate or between what is anticipated and what actually comes to pass
italian sonnet
A sonnet consisting of an octave rhyming abbaabba and of a sestet using any arrangement of two or three additional rhymes, such as cdcdcd or cdecde
limerick
A fixed form consisting of five lines of anapestic meter, the first two trimeter, the next two dimeter, the last line trimeter, rhyming aabba; used exclusively for humorous or nonsense verse
masculine rhyme
A rhyme in which the repeated accented vowel sound is in the final syllable of the words involved (for example, dance-pants, scald-recalled
Metaphor
A figure of speech in which an implicit comparison is made between two things essentially unlike. It may take one of four forms: (1) that in which the literal term and the figurative term are both named; (2) that in which the literal term is named and the figurative term implied; (3) that in which the literal term is implied and the figurative term named; (4) that in which both the literal and the figurative terms are implied
Meter
The regular patterns of accent that underlie metrical verse; the measurable repetition of accented and unaccented syllables in poetry
metonymy
A figure of speech in which some significant aspect or detail of an experience is used to represent the whole experience. In this book the single term metonymy is used for what are sometimes distinguished as two separate figures: synecdoche (the use of the part for the whole) and metonymy (the use of something closely related for the thing actually meant).
metrical variations
Departures from the basic metrical pattern
oxymoron
A compact paradox in which two successive words seemingly contradict each other
paradox
A statement or situation containing apparently contradictory or incompatible elements
paradoxical situation
A situation containing apparently but not actually incompatible elements. The celebration of a fifth birthday anniversary by a twenty-year-old man is paradoxical but explainable if the man was born on February 29. The Christian doctrines that Christ was born of a virgin and is both God and man are, for a Christian believer, paradoxes
paradoxical statement
A figure of speech in which an apparently self-contradictory statement is nevertheless found to be true
pentameter
A metrical line containing five feet
phonetic intensive
A word whose sound, by an obscure process, to some degree suggests its meaning. As differentiated from ono-matopoetic words, the meanings of phonetic intensives do not refer explicitly to sounds
prose meaning
That part of a poem's total meaning that can be separated out and expressed through paraphrase,
prose poem
Usually a short composition having the intentions of poetry but written in prose rather than verse
quatrain
1) A four-line stanza. (2) A four-line division of a sonnet marked off by its rhyme scheme
rhetorical stress
In natural speech, as in prose and poetic writing, the stressing of words or syllables so as to emphasize meaning and sentence structure
run-on line
A line which has no natural speech pause at its end, allowing the sense to flow uninterruptedly into the succeeding line
sarcasm
Bitter or cutting speech; speech intended by its speaker to
give pain to the person addressed
satire
A kind of literature that ridicules human folly or vice with the ostensible purpose of bringing about reform or of keeping others from falling into similar folly or vice
scansion
The process of measuring metrical verse, that is, of marking accented and unaccented syllables, dividing the lines into feet, identifying the metrical pattern, and noting significant variations from that pattern
sentimental poetry
Poetry that attempts to manipulate the reader's emotions in order to achieve a greater emotional response than the poem itself really warrants. (A sentimental novel or film is sometimes called, pejoratively, a "tear-jerker.")
sestet
(1) A six-line stanza. (2) The last six lines of a sonnet structured on the Italian model
sonnet
A fixed form of fourteen lines, normally iambic pentameter, with a rhyme scheme conforming to or approximating one of two main types—the Italian or the English
spondee
A metrical foot consisting of two syllables equally or almost equally accented (for example, true-blue
stanzaic form
The form taken by a poem when it is written in a series of units having the same number of lines and usually other characteristics in common, such as metrical pattern or rhyme scheme
structure
The internal organization of a poem's content
substitution
In metrical verse, the replacement of the expected metrical foot by a different one (for example, a trochee occurring in an iambic line),
syllabic verse
Verse measured by the number of syllables rather than the number of feet per line
symbol
A figure of speech in which something (object, person, situation, or action) means more than what it is. A symbol, in other words, may be read both literally and metaphorically
synecdoche
A figure of speech in which a part is used for the whole. In this book it is subsumed under the term Metonymy
synesthesia
Presentation of one sense experience in terms usually associated with another sensation
tercet
A three-line stanza exhibited in terza rima and villanelle as well as in other poetic forms
terza rima
An interlocking rhyme scheme with the pattern aba bob cdc
tetrameter
A metrical line containing four feet
theme
The central idea of a literary work
tone
The writer's or speaker's attitude toward the subject, the audience, or herself or himself; the emotional coloring, or emotional meaning, of a work
total meaning
The total experience communicated by a poem. It includes all those dimensions of experience by which a poem communicates—sensuous, emotional, imaginative, and intellectual—
and it can be communicated in no other words than those of the poem itself
triple meter
A meter in which a majority of the feet contain three syllables
trochaic meter
A meter in which the majority of feet are trochees
trochee
A metrical foot consisting of one accented syllable followed by one unaccented syllable
truncation
In metric verse, the omission of an unaccented syllable at either end of a line
understatement
A figure of speech that consists of saying less than one means, or of saying what one means with less force than the occasion warrants
verse metrical language
the opposite of prose
villanelle
A nineteen-line fixed form consisting of five tercets rhymed aba and a concluding quatrain rhymed abaa, with lines 1 and 3 of the first tercet serving as refrains in an alternating pattern through line 15 and then repeated as lines 18 and 19