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43 Cards in this Set

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What's the function of triacyglycerols?
They are the principal form of storage of energy in man
What's the function of phospholipids?
Biological membranes
What is the function of lipoproteins?
1- cell membranes.
2- lipid transport.
What are the simple lipids?
Triacylglycerols
Waxes
Name 3 complex lipids?
1- Phospholipids.
2- Glycolipids.
3- Lipoproteins.
What is the meaning of amphipathic lipids?
Lipids having a polar head and a hydrophobic tail
What is the general formula of saturated fatty acids?
CH3(CH2)nCOOH
Lignoceric acid is a
Saturated C24 fatty acid found in the nervous system
C18:1
Oleic Acid
C18:1(9)
Oleic acid, 18 carbons, 1 double bond between carbon 9 and 10
An omega 6 fatty acid
linoleic acid
an omega 3 fatty acid
linolenic acid
Essential fatty acids
fatty acids having a double bond beyond carbon 9
Name two essential fatty acids
1- Linoleic acid(C18:2(9,12))
2- Linolenic acid(C18:3(9,12,15))
Eicosanoids are formed from
C20 polyunsaturated fatty acids
Eicosanoids are derived from
Arachidonic acid
What are the 3 classes of eicosanoids
1- Prostaglandins.
2- Leukotrienes.
3- Thromboxanes.
Prostaglandins have a ... carbon ring
5 carbon ring
What are the two classes of prostaglandins
1- PGE(ether soluble).
2- PGF (phosphate buffer soluble).
Thromboxanes have a .... membered ring
6
What is the function of leukotrienes?
They are the mediators of allergic reactions and inflammation.
What is phytanic acid?
a major methylated fatty acid found in milk lipids and animal fat.
Where is phytanic acid found?
Milk lipids and animal fat
Triacyglycerols are
3 fatty acids each connected by an ester bond to a glycerol modelcule
A vasodilator used in coronary artery dieases that is derived from glycerol
nitroglycerine
Glycerol is used in the treatment of .....(dehydration)
Glaucoma
What makes triacylglycerols better than glycogen when it comes to energy storage?
1- They yield more energy bercause their carbon atoms are more reduced.
2- They are stored without any water associated to them while glycogen is highly hydrophilic.
3- An average person has 350g of glycogen stored in his liver and muscles, they will only sustain hin for 24 hours of fasting.
What are the hydrolytic products of cardiolipin?
Glycerol
2 phosphatidic acid molecules
What's tge function of lysolecithin
It is a astrong hemolytic factor
Name two phospholipids having an ester linked fatty acid
1- Plasmalogens.
2- Sphingophospholipids.
Ceramide =
Sphingosine + fatty acid
The only sphingolipid that is phospholipid
Sphingomyelin
What arethe hydrolytic products of sphingomyelin?
ceramide and phosphoryl choline
Lung surfactant
dipalmityl lecithin
Cerebrosides
Glucose || Galactose + ceramide
An icrease in the level of glucocerebroside may be a sign of
Gaucher's disease
Precursor of steroid hormones
cholesterol
Secondary bile acids are formed from primary bile acids by
Action of intestinal bacteria
Lipids mainly on the outer membrane
Choline containing phospholipids
Inner monolayer
Ethanolamine and serine containing phopholipids
Factors affecting membrane fuildity:
1- Cis fatty acids.
2- Polar groups of the phospholipids.
3- Cholesterol gives the membrane its rigidity.
4- The fluidity increases with temperature.
Define integrins
Heterodimeric proteins with two dissimilar alpha and beta subunits.
Name some processes that integrins regulate
1- Platelet aggregation.
2- Tissue repair.
3- Activity of immune cells.
4- Tumor invasion.