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131 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
study of language and the physical brain (neuro and electrochemical bases of language)
neurolinguistics
study of language and the mind--what people know, how they use that knowledge (acquisition, storage, comprehension, production)
psycholinguistics
perception and recognition of auditory stimuli
temporal lobe
higher thinking and language production
frontal lobe
vision
occipital lobe
connects 2 hemispheres
corpus collosum
1/4 inch thick membrane covering brain
cortex
bumps on surface of brain
gyri
depressions on surface of brain
fissures
separates temporal from frontal
Sylvian fissure
receives and identifies auditory signals and converts them into an interpretable form
auditory cortex
receives and interprets visual stimuli, stores pictorial images
visual cortex
sends signals to muscles
motor cortex
produces and comprehend language (for most people, located in the left hemisphere)
language centers
organizes articulatory patterns and directs motor cortex for speech
Broca's area
comprehension of words and sentences and selection of words (perception and comprehension)
Wernicke's area
converts visual into auditory and vice versa
angular gyrus
Wernicke's --> arcuate fasiculus --> Broca's area --> motor cortex
speaking
auditory cortex --> Wernicke's
hearing
visual cortex --> angular gyrus --> Wernicke's
reading
specialization of brain hemispheres
lateralization
right side of body with left side of brain
contralateral
inability to perceive, process, or produce language due to physical damage to the brain (left hemisphere)
aphasia
inhibits word production
Broca's aphasia
inhibits speech comprehension
Wernicke's aphasia
round about descriptions
arcumlocutions
unawareness of disturbances in own language
anosognosia
damage to arcuate fasciculus, which connects Broca's and Wernicke's. sufferers have Wernicke's speech, but can comprehend, just not imitate
conduction aphasia
inability to read and comprehend written word (angular gyrus)
alexia
inability to write words (angular gyrus)
agraphia
sending messages, planning what we want to say and instructing the proper muscles (thought process is holistic. utterance is linear)
speech production
minimal units that make up language
phonetics
the study of the transmission and physical properties of speech sounds (wanting to know the sounds produced)
acoustic phonetics
-sound spectrograph-pictures of sounds
the study of the perception of speech sounds (knowing what parts of the mouth are moving and in what configurations)
auditory phonetics
-x-ray photography
-palatography-to observe contact between tongue and roof of mouth, air flow, air pressure
sound
phone
like in "Let's call the whole thing off"
impressionistic phonetic transcription
discrete units of speech stream that can be further subdivided into category consonants and vowels
segments
"ride on top of" segments. apply to entire strings of consonants and vowels (tone, stress)
suprasegmentals
heart of the syllable
nucleus
simple vowels, composed of a single configuration of the vocal tract
monopthongs
complex vowels, composed of a sequence of two different configurations
dipthongs
words run together (pronunciation may be affected by surrounding words)
running/continuous speech
motion or positioning of some part of the vocal tract with respect to some other vocal tract surface in the production of speech
articulation
creates sounds by exhaling
pulmonic egressive airstream
is the sound voiced or voiceless?
where is the airstream constricted?
how is the airstream constricted?
consonant articulation
contains vocal folds and glottis
larynx (voice box)
above the larynx, composed of oral and nasal cavities
vocal tract
part of the respiratory system located below the larynx
subglottal system
windpipe with larynx at top
trachea
within the larynx, folds of muscle
vocal folds (cords)
opening between folds
glottis
sounds made with vocal folds vibrating
voiced sounds
sounds made without vibration
voiceless sounds
where a constriction is made in the vocal tract
place of articulation
consonants are made by bringing both lips closer together (pat, bat, math, with)
bilabial
consonants are made with the lower lip against the front teeth (fat, vat)
labiodental
made with tip of tongue protruding between the front teeth (th)
interdentals
made with tongue tip at or near the alveolar ridge (just behind upper front teeth) (tab, dab, sip, zip, noose, loose, red)
alveolar
made a bit further back in the mouth (near hard palate) (leash, measure, church, judge, yes)
palatal
produced at soft part of roof of mouth behind the hard palate--the velum (kill, gill, sing)
velar
produced at larynx (between vocal folds and glottis) (high, uh oh)
glottal
how airstream is modified by vocal tract to produce sound
manner of articulation
made by obstructing the airstream completely in oral cavity
stops
made by forming a nearly complete obstruction of the vocal tract
fricatives
made by briefly stopping airstream completely, then releasing articulators slightly so that frication noise is produces
affricates
produced by lowering the velum and opening the nasal passage to the vocal tract
nasals
substantial constriction of vocal tract, but not narrow enough to block or cause turbulence
liquids
made with only a slight closure of articulators, like vowels almost
glides
complete obstruction of oral cavity (faster than stop)
flap
picture to show where tongue touches roof of mouth during an articulation (static w/ ink, dynamic w/ electrodes)
palatography
like "ha" with jaw open
low vowel
tongue body close to roof of mouth
high vowel
raising or lowering body of tongue
advancing or retracting the body of the tongue
rounding or not rounding lips
making movements with a tense or lax gesture
ways to change vocal tract and vowel quality
more extreme positions of tongue or lips
tense
pattern of pitch movements across a stretch of speech
intonation
change in fundamental frequency in middle of utterance
pitch accents
occur at end of phrase. represent pitch pattern right before a perceived break
edge tones
the study of the distribution of sounds in a language and the interactions between those different sounds
phonology
interchanging two pronunciations does not alter meaning
noncontrastive
changing pronunciation changes meaning even when words are similar
contrastive
a class of speech sounds that seem to be variants of the same sound
phoneme
each member of a particular phoneme class which responds to an actual phonetic segment
allophone
a pair of words whose pronunciations differ by exactly one sound and that have different meanings
minimal pair
a difference between two or more phonetic forms that you might otherwise expect to be related
alternation
never uses a minimal pair to distinguish two words. you can predict which of two sounds belongs in any given context
complementary distribution
you may not be able to predict which sound will occur, but the choice does not affect the meaning of the word
free variation
sounds that can occur in the same environment
overlapping distribution
group of sounds in a language that share one or more articulatory or auditory property, to the exclusion of all other sounds in that language
natural class
produced with an obstruction of the airflow (stops, fricatives, affricates)
obstruents
nasals, liquids, glides, vowels
sonorants
cause a sound to be more like a neighboring sound with respect to some phonetic property--the segment affected by the rule takes on a property from a nearby segment
assimilation
two close adjacent sounds become less like each other with respect to some property by means of a change in one or both sounds
dissimilation
a segment not present at the phonemic level is added to the phonetic form of a word (hampster)
insertion
eliminate a sound that was present at the phonemic level (he handed er iz hat)
deletion
change the order of sounds
metathesis
make sounds stronger (aspiration)
strengthening
sounds become weaker (writer-rider)
weakening
the sounds that immediately precede and follow the sound in question
environment
the study of word making
morphology
what a word sounds like when spoken
form

(meaning)
noun, adjective, etc.
parts of speech
the process of creating words out of other words
derivation (stem = root, affixes = added pieces)
parts that words are made of
morpheme
can be used as words all by themselves
free morphemes
cannot stand alone
bound morphemes
have semantic meaning or dictate a change in meaning with respect to the root to which they attach
content morphemes
the organization of words into phrases and phrases into sentences
syntax
strings of words that form possible sentences of a language
grammatical
group of words that can function in the same way in a sentence
lexical categories
an input category appears in the output (NP --> NP PP)
recursive rule (sets)
a means of transmitting the message
(vocal, visual, chemical)
a mode of communication
components of the system have meaning
semanticity
the system serves a purpose
pragmatic function
individuals can both send and receive messages
interchangeability
individuals must learn some or all of the communication system through interaction with other individuals
cultural transmission
the relationship between the components of the system and what those components refer to is not logically deducible
arbitrariness
the system consists of isolatable, repeatable units
discreteness
the ability to communicate about things that are not present spatially or temporally
displacement
the ability to produce and understand an infinite number of utterances, many of which are novel
productivity/creativity
all communication systems have
mode of communication, semanticity, pragmatic function
only human language has
duality of patterning, displacement, productivity
recording of what people have spoken
texts of what people have written
external language
the knowledge of language, what enables you to make and understand sentences
the intended sentences, rather than how they are actually spoken
internal language (competence...vs. performance)
subjective rules for how language should be spoken or written
often modeled after Latin and Greek
prescriptive grammar
rules based on how language is actually used
descriptive grammar
children learn language by imitating what they hear around them
imitation
(children make errors, say things they've never heard)
children get positive and negative reinforcement during language learning
reinforcement (behaviorism)
(most reinforcement relates to politeness or truth, not correctness)
children use their general intelligence and the given data to invent rules and construct grammar
grammar construction
(seems to be too complicated)
learning is making neural connections; knowledge is the state of a neural network. connecting the sound with the meaning.
connectionism
(some knowledge seems prewired)
children learn language by interacting in a social world
social interaction
(children often develop in the same way)
children learn language because language is an instinct
innateness
(vocabulary?, hard to isolate language)