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31 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
morpheme
elemental units that comprise words
roots
part of morpheme that remains

ex: system-->systematically
derivational
un from unwelcome
inflectional
ex: -ing, -s, -ed
base/stem
-atic, -al, -ly, etc
morphology
study of word formation and internal structure of words
bound morpheme
always part of other words, never can stand alone

ex: -dom from kingdom
free morpheme
can stand alone

ex: king
affixes
added to words: prefixes, suffixes, infixes, etc

bound morpheme
open class/lexical categories
free morpheme: N, V
closed class/functional categories
articles, conjuncitons, etc

no real meaning?
compounds
laptop, rocking chair, White House
blends
brunch
acronyms
NASA
eponyms
john=toilet
back formations
ex: enthuse from enthusiasm
clippings
ex: fan from fanatic
phrasal categories
Noun Phrase, Verb Phrase, etc
lexical categories
noun, verb, etc
functional categories
determiner, auxiliary, comp...

not composable--the basest
phrase structure rules
ex: NP--> Det (A) N
head (of phrase)
central word of phrase that defines the type
complement (of phrase)
constituents in a phrase other than the head that completes the meaning of the phrase which is C-selected by the verb.

ex: found a puppy
C= puppy
H=found
d-structures
basic phrase structure trees of the language
c-selection

or

subcategorization
the classifying of verbs and other lexical itmes in terms of the syntactic category of the completments that they accept.
transformational rule, transformation
derives a new structure by moving or inserting elements
ex:John saw who? (d-structure)
Who did John see?(s-structure)
s-structure
output of the transformational rules; the structure to which the pohonological rules of language apply
inflection
head of the sentence

specifies time frame for sentence (ex: swimS, stareD)
complementizer phrases (CP)
ex: hope THAT HE WILL CALL ME

complementizer: that, for

sentence within a sentence

CP-->C S
recursive rule
a phrase structure rule that repeats its own category on its right side

ex: VP-->VP PP
WH and/or question words
often moved to beginning of the sentence (but not always)