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93 Cards in this Set

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ETYMON
Historical word from which a more recent form was derived, whether in the same or a different language. For instance, Old English "acsion is the _______ for Modern English "ask". It may be helpful to think of an etymon as a "parent" word, a REFLEX as a "child" word, and COGNATES as "cousin" words.
REFLEX
Historical word derived from an older form, whether in the same or different language, called an ETYMON. For instance, Modern English "ask" is a ____ of Old English "acsian". It may be helpful to think of an etymon as a "parent" word, a _____ as a "child" word, and COGNATES as "cousin" words.
HISTORICAL LINGUISTICS
Branch of Linguistics focused on the development of language over time, also called Diachronic linguistics.
SYNCHRONICALLY
concerned with the present state of affairs
COGNATES
Word from one language that shares an ETYMON with a word from another language; for instance, English "fish" and French "peche" are ____, as they share and Indo-European etymon. It may be helpful to think of an etymon as a "parent" word, a "reflex" as a "child" word, and _____ as "cousin" words.
LINGUISTICS
The principled study of language as a system. Also the study of language as a social phenomenon.
PHONOLOGY
Study of sound systems and sound change, usually within a particular language or family of languages.
PHONETICS
Description and classification of sounds and the study of their production and perception.
MORPHOLOGY
Study of word forms and the processes by which words are formed.
SYNTAX
Systematic ways in which words combine to create well-formed phrases, clauses, and sentences.
SEMANTICS
Systematic study of meaning in language, especially word and sentence meaning.
PRAGMATICS

or

DISCOURSE ANALYSIS
Study of how we communicate in language, with emphasis on SPEECH ACT THEORY; an approach to discourse analysis.
PRESCRIPTIVIST
person inclined to regulate language as he or she believes it should be, rather than describe what it is, has been, or will be; as an adjective, typical of such a person's attitude toward language.
PRESCRIPTIVE RULES
statement of what supposedly should occur in a language or languages, rather than what has occurred or does occur.
DESCRIPTIVIST
person inclined to describe language as it is, has been, or will be, rather than to regulate language according to what he or she believes it should be; as an adjective, typical of such a person's attitude toward language.
STYLE
1. use of supposedly "good" or "correct" English.
2. specific type of speech, for instance, formal speech or colloquial speech, academic speech or gossip, etc.
DESCRIPTIVE RULES
statement of what regularly actually occurs in a language or languages generally, as opposed to what supposedly should occur.
BACK VOWELS
vowel sound produced when the tongue is placed toward the back of the mouth, such as the vowels in "put" and "bought".
CENTRAL VOWEL
most common vowel in English, formed in the center of the mouth, as in "but" and the first syllable of "about"; IPA represents the ___ differently when it appears in stressed syllables and unstressed syllables. In stressed syllables it is indicated by a wedge, and in unstressed syllables, it is indicated by a schwa.
PHONEMES
distinctive sound of a language
ALLOPHONES
any variant of a phoneme; for instance, perhaps realizes two ____ of the phoneme /p/, one aspirated (the initial one), the other not.
PHONETICS
description and classification of sounds and the study of their production and perception.
PHONOLOGY
study of sound systems and sound change, usually within a particular language or family of languages.
ARTICULATORY PHONETICS
study of sound in language focused on how speakers produce it.
ACOUSTICS PHONETICS
study of sound in language focused on how sound is transmitted.
AUDITORY PHONETICS
study of sound in a language focused on how people perceive it.
TRACHEA
the "windpipe" through which air flows from the lungs to the larynx.
LARYNX
muscular, cartilaginous part of the respiratory tract that contains the vocal cords.
EPIGLOTTIS
cartilage that covers the opening between the vocal cords and the larynx
VOCAL CORDS
elastic muscles that stretch over the larynx.
VOICING
distinctive feature that describes the extent to which the vocal cords are pulled back ("voiceless" or "unvoiced") or vibrate ("voiced").
ALVEOLAR RIDGE
tissue above the upper teeth where the tongue rests to produce certain sounds, such as {z}.
HARD PALATE
front surface of the roof of the mouth leading forward to the alveolar ridge and back to the soft palate.
SOFT PALATE

or

VELUM
rear surface of the roof of the mouth, leading forward to the hard palate and back toward the larynx.
WHAT ARE SOME IMPORTANT FACTORS FOR THE EVOLUTION OF HUMAN LANGUAGE?
-brain size, intelligence, memory
-food sources
-social behavior: cooperation, gossip
-stand upright (lower larynx, gesture)
WHAT ARE SOME ADVANTAGES TO LANGUAGE?
-tool making
-second-hand knowledge
-social networks (protection, sharing)
-expression
-art
PRESCRIPTIVE RULES-WHAT FOR?
-evaluated in school, workplace, and social situations
-occasionally improves clarity (that/which)
-descriptive fact-social control
STANDARD ENGLISH
-prestige social dialect
-neutral and authoritative
-power
WHY IS SPOKEN LANGUAGE PRIMARY?
-acquired first
-many speakers never become literate
-many languages have no written form
SPOKEN
-more variation
-clearer sense of audience
-correction and repair
-shared context
-run-on sentences and fragments
WRITTEN
-more formal
-physical context
-permanent
-more subordination
VIEWS AGAINST PRESCRIPTION
-socially constructed-artificial
-arbitrary-split infinitive
-arbitrarily conservative-double negatives, sayest.
-often clunky/pompous-Whom is it for?
-not more logical
OFFGLIDE
speech sound produced when a vowel moves into a glide, as (repeatedly) in "How now, brown cow?"
FRONT VOWEL
vowel sound, like that in beat, bait, and bat, formed when the tongue is placed forward in the mouth.
TENSENESS

or

LAXNESS
distinctive feature of vowels indicating the relatively loose (central) or tense (peripheral) position of the tongue.
FRONTNESS

or

BACKNESS
distinctive feature of vowels realized when the tongue is placed toward the front of the mouth.
HEIGHT
distinctive feature of vowels determined by the relative position (high, low, or mid) of the tongue when producing the sound.
RETROFLEX LIQUID
speech sound produced when the tongue is curled up toward the top of the mouth and air is funneled over it.
BUNCHED /r/
allophone of /r/ produced when the tongue is tense and placed toward the roof of the mouth.
LATERAL LIQUID
the phoneme /l/, so called because, in its production, air passes along the sides of the tongue.
APPROXIMANT
sound made by restricting but not blocking the vocal tract such as /j/.
GLIDE
speech sound produced by transition from one speech sound to another, such as /w/ and /j/
LIQUID
consonant produced when articulators are in proximity to each other but do not impede airflow, such as /l/ and /r/.
NASAL
stop produced when air flows from the lungs through the nose, such as [m], [n], the final sounds in sum, sin, and sting.
SONORANT
any speech sound that includes "humming" or voicing.
OBSTRUENTS
speech sound, such as an affricate, fricative, or oral stop, produced with obstruction of air flow in the mouth.
ORAL SOUND
speech sound, such as affricate, fricative, or stop, produced by funneling air through the mouth.
FRICATIVE
speech sound, such as /f/, produced when articulators are brought so close together that friction is created as air passes through the mouth.
GLOTTAL STOP
speech sound produced in the larynx, when the glottis, or opening between the vocal cords, is closed and audibly released.
STOP
speech sound produced, in part, by complete obstruction of airflow.
MANNER OF ARTICULATION
distinctive feature that describes proximity of articulators and the accompanying affect on airflow in production of a speech sound.
PLACE OF ARTICULATION
distinctive feature that indicates the location of the articulators in the production of speech sounds.
DISTINCTIVE FEATURES
characteristics of speech sounds that distinguish them from one another, namely, manner of articulation, place of articulation, and voicing.
DIACRITICS
phonetic marks that indicate a value not expressed in the accompanying phonetic symbol or letter.
INTERNATIONAL PHONETIC ALPHABET
(IPA)
set of symbols and diacritics designed by the International Phonetic Association to represent phonemes of the world's languages, as well as their realization in speech.
VOWEL
speech sound characterized by unimpeded airflow and produced by shape of the oral cavity and the tongue's shape and position.
CONSONANT
speech sound produced by partial or total obstruction of air flow by one or more speech organs, like the tongue, lips, teeth, etc.
ONGLIDE
speech sound produced when a glide moves into a vowel, as in some pronunciations of Tuesday.
AFFRICATE
speech sound composed of a stop followed by a fricative, for instance, the initial sound in chatter.
SIGNIFIED
concept that s signifier represents; one essential component of a linguistic sign
SIGNIFIER
any meaningful string of sounds, that is, a linguistic form; one essential component of a linguistic sign
LINGUISTIC SIGN
linguistic entity that joins signifier and signified in one linguistic representation
LINGUISTIC COMPETENCE
innate human ability to acquire and use language, given certain biological and developmental constraints
LINGUISTIC PERFORMANCE
a speaker's utterances in a particular language, as opposed to his or her innate linguistic competence.
RECURSIVITY
capacity of language to embed an infinite number of elements into its grammatical structure.
GRAMMAR
structure and rules governing a language at the levels of sound, word formation, syntax, and semantics
GRAMMATICAL
features of language that conform to the rules of grammar, and that are comprehensible to other native speakers of the language.
PSYCHOLINGUISTICS
study of the relationships among language, mind, and the brain, including processes of language acquisition, also called "cognitive linguistics".
DISPLACEMENT
human cognitive ability, reflected in linguistic competence, that allows projection forward and backward in time, as well as for abstract ideas.
SEPARATION OF AFFECT
distinction between the factual and emotional contents of language, essential to human language.
RECONSTITUTION
property of language, by which it can be analyzed into infinitely recombinable parts
ASSIMILATION
phonological process in which a sound changes to resemble a nearby sound, as when 'in' becomes 'im' in impossible.
ELISION
a phonological process in which a sound is dropped to blend in with other words in a sentence. example: when 'and' is used before an /m/ sound, the /d/ is usually dropped.
PROTO-LANGUAGE
language of which there is no written evidence, but which can be reconstituted from the evidence of related written languages, according to systematic rules of historical sound change and word formation; for instance, Proto-Indo-European, Germanic, and Italic, are proto-languages of particular importance to the development of English.
METATHESIS
phonological process in which sounds switch places in the phonemic structure of a word, as when Old/Middle English 'bridde' becomes Middle/Modern English 'bird' or 'aks' becomes 'ask'.
LANGUE
underlying, abstract system of language; relationships of linguistic signs to one another both in the lexicon and in syntax of a language
PAROLE
actual speech, as opposed to langue
STYLISTICS
study of language as used in artificial contexts, such as literature, judicial and political speech, etc; study of language as art or craft
SOCIOLINGUISTICS
study of language in use, especially in terms of variation
DIALECTOLOGY
study of variation in a particular language or language family
CORPUS
any collection of texts from which linguistics information can be extracted but especially those collections designed and developed specifically for that purpose.
CORPORA
the plural form of corpus
HYPERCORRECTION
linguistic form, structure, or pronunciation that a speaker supposes to be correct (or formal) in a variety that he or she does not control fully, thus, usually a result of style-shifting; for instance; "they gave a wonderful gift to Janie and I" is a ______ of "they gave a wonderful gift to Janie and me." Also use of such a form structure, or pronunciation.