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32 Cards in this Set

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Complementary Distribution
pattern of distribution of two or more sounds that do not occur in the same position within words in a given language
ex. pʰ does not occur where p does
<p> as in poke
asperated pʰ
asperated
<p> as in spring
unasperated /p/
/p/
unasperated
<p> as in mop
unreleased p̚
unreleased
Phoneme
structural element in the sound system of a language, symbol, doesn't exist
Allophone
realization of a single structural element in the sound system, the actual sound
Allomorph
alternatnt realization of a morpheme in a particular linguistic environment ex.plural morpheme s, z, ɘz
Free variation
term used to characterize allophones of a given phoneme that can occur in the same position in a word without altering the word's meaning
minimal pairs
everything in the word is the same, except one phoneme ex, pit-sit
Allophones differ in:
Voicing (b, d, g, p, t, d)
aspiration (/p/, pʰ, p̚)
manner of articulation
place of atriculation
A➞B/C_D
phonological rule
A becomes B in the environment following C and preceding D
vowel➞nasal/_nasal
nasalization rule
Vowels are nasalized when they precede nasal sounds
natural class of sounds
set of speech sounds that can all be characterized by one or a few phonetic features
underlying forms
form of a morpheme that is stored in the mental lexicon
surface form
word's actual pronunciation; generalized by the application of the phonological rules of a language
V➞V:/_C
voiced
lengthening rule
vowels are lengthened preceding voiced consonants
alveolar stop➞flap/V_V
unstressed
/t/, /d/ are realized as [ɾ] between two vowels, the second of which is unstressed
parts of syllable
rhyme (must have), and onset
rhyme
consists of a nucleus and any consonants following it
nucleus
is usually a vowel, although certain consonants called sonorants can also function as a nucleus
sonarant
include nasals, and liquids, that act as ɘ
onset
any consonant preceeding the nucleus
coda
any consonants following the nucleus as part of the rhyme
sequence constraints
rules that characterize permissible syllable structures, and determine what constitues a possible syllable, also called a phonotactic constraint
preferred syllable type among world languages
CV, CVC, V
/z/➞[ɘz]/sibilant+_#
schwa insertion rule A
schwa is inserted before a word-final/z/ that follows a morpheme ending in a sibilant
/z/➞voiceless/voiceless+_#
assimilation rule A
word-final /z/ is devoiced following a morpheme that ends in a voiceless sound
/d/➞[ɘd]/alveolar stop+_#
schwa insertion rule B
schwa is inserted preceding a word-final /d/ that follows a morpheme ending in an alveolar stop
/d/➞voiceless/voiceless+_#
assimilation rule B
word-final /d/ is realized as [t] following a morpheme that ends in a voiceless sound.