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39 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Linguists study language not as an artificial construct but rather as the...
output of a native speaker's unconscious ability to correctly identify & put together the sounds in a language, etc.
Linguistic competence refers to
A native speaker's unconscious abilities involving his/her language
What extra-linguistic factors can cause performance errors?
fatigue or excitement
What was the name of the reverend who was famous for transposing sounds or words in a sentence and what was the term given these types of errors?
REV. W. A. SPOONER; called "Spoonerisms"
Standards that claim one sentence rather than the other is the correct one.
PRESCRIPTIVE
What do linguists interest their studies in concerning grammar?
linguists are interested in the grammar that constitutes a speaker's linguistic competence. We know that this grammar is real because all native speakers have intuitive knowledge about what constructions are possible in their language
The most common way speech sounds are produced (air originates in the lungs and exits through the mouth or nose)
PULMONIC EGRESSIVE
egressive sound produced when air is moved out of the mouth by the release of the closed vocal folds
EJECTIVES
Produced when air is sucked into the mouth
IMPLOSIVES
Produced when air is moved around the mouth
CLICKS
When was the International Phonetic Alphabet developed and why is it necessary? What was its purpose?
1888; because languages of the world are written with different scripts. Also, in many cases there is no predictable correspondence between sound and symbol. It allows linguists to represent the sounds in all the world's languages.
consist of symbols for consonants and vowels. The consonants each have an inherent vowel which can be changed to another vowel or muted by means of diacritics. Vowels can also be written with separate letters when they occur at the beginning of a word or on their own.
SYLLABIC ALPHABETS
What are two examples of logographic systems?
CHINESE AND HIEROGLYPHICS
Logographic alphabets have characters that represent both __ and ___
SOUND & MEANING
symbols which represent parts of words or whole words. Some logograms resemble the things they represent and are sometimes known as pictograms or pictographs.
LOGOGRAMS
symbols which graphically represent abstract ideas
IDEOGRAMS
symbols which include a semantic element, which represents or hints at the meaning of the symbol, and a phonetic element, which denotes or hints at the pronunciation.
SEMANTIC-PHONETIC COMPOUNDS
How are the vocal folds arranged during normal breathing?
RELAXED AND SPREAD APART
WHAT IS THE PURPOSE OF THE GLOTTIS
allows free passage of air into and out of the lungs
WHat kind of sound is produced when the vocal folds are separated and DO NOT vibrate?
VOICELESS
Sounds produced with vibrating vocal folds
VOICED
produced with the tongue raised to approach the roof of the mouth.
HIGH VOWELS
[i], as in heed [hid], [ɪ], as in hit [hɪt], [u] as in who'd [hud], [ʊ] as in hood [hʊd]. are all examples of...
HIGH VOWELS
produced with the tongue low in the mouth
LOW VOWELS
[æ] as in hat [hæt] and [a] as in hot [hat] are examples of:
LOW VOWELS
How can you tell the difference between high and low vowels?
by comparing the position of your tongue when pronouncing heed/hat and who'd/hot.
produced with the tongue midway between high and low vowels
MID VOWELS
Stressed syllables are often ___, ____, and of ____ pitch than unstressed syllables
LOUDER, LONGER; HIGHER
produced with the tongue body advanced or pushed forward in the oral cavity.
FRONT VOWELS
[i], [I], [e] and [æ]
FRONT VOWELS
In the production of central vowels the tongue is neither ____ nor ____
ADVANCED; RETRACTED
How many rounded vowels are there in English?
FOUR
Linguists describe vowels produced with less tension as
LAX VOWELS
Vowels produced w/more tension
TENSE VOWELS
The lax tongue muscles slightly _____ the tongue and _____ the duration of the sound.
LOWER; SHORTEN
single sounds over the duration of the segment
MONOPHTHONGS
produced when the tongue moves quickly from the articulation of a vowel to a glide
DIPHTHONGS
the vowel sound in the words buy and side is produced when the tongue starts in the low ___ position of [a]. It then moves swiftly to the position of the ______ _____ [y], which is articulated in the same space as the high front vowel [i]. This is the diphthong____.
BACK; PALATAL GLIDE; [ay]
The vowel sound in the words cloud and lounge is
produced when the tongue starts in the low back position of the vowel [a].