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50 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Analogy Theory
Children acquire language by using sentence patterns they head as a basis to form new sentences.
Imitation Theory
Children acquire language by imitating/hearing/listening the language around them.

a.) All children pass through predictable stages of "incorrect" speech.
b.) Fails to account for linguistic creativity
Reinforcement Theory
Children acquire language through positive and negative reinforcement. (verbal feedback from parents).

a.) Not all parents reinforce children, but all children perfectly acquisition language.
b.) not all cultures value parent/child interaction (verbal)
c.)Parents correct truth value more freq. than grammatically.
d.) Children systematically ignore explicit instruction.
Allophone
The surface level variation of a phoneme.
Assimilation
When one sound assimilates/acquires feature(s)of a neighboring sound. Ex. [naIn] [naIno]
Behaviorism(Skinner)
Directly observable rather than on the mental systems underlying these behaviors.
Universal Grammar
The innate principles and properties that pertain to the grammars of all human languages.
Contralateralization
Left side of the brain controls that right side of the body and the right side of the brain controls the left side of the body.
Covert Prestige
Defines your membership within a group. Builds solidarity
Overt Prestige
Right there in your face (upper class) socially powerful
Regularity of Sound Change
When /aj/ occurs in non-southern dialects /ai/ occurs in southern dialects.
Dialectal Variation
1.) Geographical (space)
2.) Time
3.) Social
Insertion(Epenthesis)
Insertion of a sound that's not there on the phonemic level.
Impoverishment of Data
Children are presented with no examples of the grammatical structures that occur in our language, but they are able to understand and construct it.
Poverty of Stimulus
The idea that the examples(data) children are given to model their speech than perfect. No one speaks perfectly. There's false starts, slips of the tongue, mishear someone. Despite children are filtered with an imperfect sample of language they develop it perfectly.
Lateralization
Specific functions being assigned to a specific side of the brain.
Lexicon
The component of the grammar containing speakers' knowledge about morphemes and words; a person's mental dictionary.
Maxim of Quality
You will be as straight forward and to the point as possible.
Avoid ambiguity.
Maxim of Relevance
Your contributions to a convo should be relevant.
Maxim of Quantity
You don't give more information that necessary.
Maxim of Manner
Be brief and orderly; avoid ambiguity and obscurity.
Modularity(brain)
Components of particular functions are specialized to a particular area of the brain.
Morphology
The study of meaning.
Phoneme
Mental representation of a sound.
Phonetics
The study of the physical sounds of language.
Extension(Elements of Meaning)
The referential part of the meaning of an expression.
Intension/Sense/Reference(Elements of Meaning)
The inherent non referential part of the meaning of an expression(sense)
Plasticity
Characteristic of the brain whereby it can move or relocate one function to one particular area to another area of the brain.
(The older you get the less plastic it becomes).
Phonolgy
The sound system of a language; how sounds can be combined in a language.
Pragmatics
The study of how context and situation affect meaning.
Prescriptivism
Describes how you "should" speak a.)classical languages-In other languages the infinitive doesn't split-conform our language based on other languages.
b.) [Math] Logic-Two negatives equal a positive
c.) historical Usage- Speak our language how it used to be spoken.
Descriptivism
How language is actually spoken and understood.
a.) the language people actually use.
-Linguists are interested in it b/c we're interested in the truth. If we look at the data we can construct the rules of mental grammar.
Prestige Dialect
The Standard. The dialect usually spoken by people in positions of power and the one deemed correct by prescriptive grammarians. The prestige of the dialect is connected to the prestige of the people.
Semantics
The study of linguistic meaning(as it relates to morphemes, words, phrases, and sentences).
Syntax
The rules of phrase and sentence formation
Language
discrete creative form of communication that arbitrarily forms a meaning.
Characteristics of Human Languages
-What sounds are in that language and what sounds are not.
-Knowing the sounds and sound patterns
-Knowing that certain sequences of sounds signify certain concepts of meanings.
-Enables you to combine sounds to form words, words to form phrases, and phrases to form sentences.
Dialect
mutually intelligible varieties of a language that differs in systematic ways.
Dialect Superiority
social judgement-has no linguistic or scientific basis.
Linguistic Creativity
A limited set of rules to produce and understand the production of unlimited utterances.
Innateness Theory
Active Construction of Grammar-exits in your mind (genetic model) consists of principles and parameters(UG) As data filters in your mind the word order is subj., verb, obj.
Negative Copula ain't
takes [+PRD] complements such as nominals, adjectivals, locatives, progressives and gonna, and can simply be listed as a negative form of be. Derived from bain't.
Ex. He ain't a teacher/sick/here.
He ain't working right now.
He ain't gonna do it.
Negative Perfect ain't
takes V-ed complements and functions as the negative counterpart of done. Derived from hasn't and haven't.
Ex. He ain't seen it yet.
I ain't cleaned my room for weeks.
Negative Preterite ain't
takes a verb stem as complement and is to all intents and purposes simply a phonological alternant of didn't. Not found in other non-standard dialects, might well be attributed to loss of the initial /d/ of didn't
Dialectical Variation(Logical Equivalence)
In this case, if there are different ways to say things ("I ain't got none" and "I don't got any" and "I don't have any", etc.) we can obviously see that these are dialectal variants. But prescriptivists would call this kind of language deficient or illogical, however, in reality, clearly we understand what is being said in these cases--and even in cases where we might not understand --there is a logical system that is operating, and which can be understood by its speakers. Now this may not be the same system that You and I use, but it is Equivalent--that is to say, So-and-so might not speak the same way that we do, but he can still communicate the same ideas--different systems/mechanisms of communication (different dialects), but equally logical, equally systematic
Phonological Variation
Different phonological rules.
Ex. [fo sho]
Morphological Variation
Differences in word structure.
Ex. "clumb" "climbed"
Lexical Variation
Differences in word choice
Syntactic Variation
Differences in sentence structure, phrase structure, and grammar.
Correctness and Appropriateness
"Is one dialect superior to another?" The answer from a scientific point of view, simply looking at the systems of communication, is a resounding "NO"! One dialect is not more "correct", is not better than another, not simply based on its system (its rules, its grammar), but we can say that use of a particular dialect can be more "appropriate" (socially appropriate) in particular situations.