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29 Cards in this Set

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What are the five basic principles of grammar and language?
Generality: All languages have a grammar.

Parity: All grammars are equal.

Universality: Grammars are alike in basic ways.

Mutability: Grammars change over time.

Inaccessibility: Grammatical knowledge is subconscious.
Contrast articulatory phonetics with acoustic phonetics.
Articulatory phonetics studies the mechanisms of speech production, while acoustic is concerned with measuring and analyzing the physical properties of sound waves produced when we speak.
How is the sound-producing system organized?
Air supply: lungs

Sound source: larynx

Filters: pharynx, oral cavity, nasal cavity
What are the main glottal states and the position of the vocal folds in each?
Voicelessness: vocal folds pulled apart.

Voicing: vocal folds brough close together, but not tightly closed.

Whisper: voiceless, but vocal folds adjusted so that front is pulled close together while back portions are apart.

Murmer: voiced, but vocal folds relaxed enough to allow more air to escape.
Describe the articulatory and acoustic difference between vowels and consonants.
Consonantal sounds (voiced or unvoiced) are made with either complete closure or narrowing of the vocal tract. Vowels are produced with little obstruction in the vocal tract and usually voiced.

Vowels are more sonorous than consonants, and are perceived as louder and longer lasting.
What are the two liquids?
Varieties of 'l' (laterals) and 'r'
What is the vowel equivalent of the glide [j]?

What is the vowel equivalent of the glide [w]?
[i]; [u]
What are three suprasegmentals?
Pitch: tone and intonation.

Length [:]

Loudness

Pitch + Length + Loudness = Stress
Contrast tone and intonation.
Tone: differences in word meaning are signalled by differences in pitch. Level tones are called register tones and moving pitches are called contour tones.

Intonation can convey information but not differences in word meaning. Terminal (falling) contour signals completion and non-terminal (rising) contour signals incompleteness.
Define assimilation and contrast regressive with progressive assimiliation.
Assimilation is a group of articulatory processes that results from a sound becoming more like another nearby sound in terms of one or more of its phonetic characteristics.

Regressive: preceding segment takes on characteristic of following segment.

Progressive: following segment takes on characteristic of preceding segment.
What is epenthesis?
When a syllabic or non-syllabic segment is inserted within an existing string of segments.

i.e.
warmth -> warmpth
length -> lenkth
prince -> printce
What is metathesis?
A process that reorders a sequence of segments, often to make it easier to articulate.

i.e.
prescribe -> perscribe
prescription -> perscription
When two segments never occur in the same phonetic environment, we say they are in _________ _________.
Complementary distribution.
List the following in order of sonorority.

(i) Liquids
(ii) Nasals
(iii) Vowels
(iv) Glides
Vowels, Glides, Liquids, Nasals
What are the elements that make up the internal structure of a syllable?
σ

Onset - Rhyme


Rhyme: Nucleus + Coda
What are phonotactics?
Phonotactics are the set of contraints on how sequences of segments patter, forming part of a speaker's knowledge of the phonology of their language.
What is a derivational affix?
A form of affixation that forms a word with a meaning distinct from that of its base.
What is an inflectional affix?
Affixational process that does not change word meaing, but instead provides additional grammatical information.
What is suppletion?
A form of inflection that replaces a morpheme with an entirely different morpheme in order to indicate a grammatical contrast.
What is conversion and another name for it?
AKA zero derivation, conversion is a process that assigns an already existing word to a new syntactic category.
What is clipping?
Clipping is a process that shortens a polysyllabic word by deleting one or more syllables.
What are blends?
Blends are words that are created from non-morphemic parts of two already existing items, usually the first part of one and the final part of the other.
What is backformation?
Backformation is a process that creates a new word by removing a real or supposed affix from another word in the language.
We say that an utterance is _________ if native speakers judge it to be a possible sentance of their language.
Grammatical
What is Universal Grammar and some characteristics?
The system of categories, operations, and principles shared by all languages.

Lexicon - mental dictionary.
Computational system - operations that combine and arrange words in particular ways (ex. Merge and Move)
What are five lexical categories and 4 non-lexical categories?
Lexical: Noun, Verb, Adjective, Proposition, Adverb.

Non-Lexical: Determiner, Degree, Auxiliary (Modal and non-modal), Conjunction.
What four generalizations are captured by the X' schema?
1. All phrases have a three-level structure (X, X', XP)

2. All phrases contain a head, X.

3. If there is a complement, it is attached at the intermediate X' level, as a sister of the head.

4. If there is a specifier, it is attached at the XP level.
What are the three tests for phrase structure and how do they work?
The substitution test - Can the phrase be replaced by an element such as 'they', 'there', 'it', or 'do so'.

The movement test - Can the phrase be moved to a different position within the sentence?

The coordination test - Can it be joined to another group of words by a conjunction such as 'and', 'or', or 'but'.
What is subcategorization?
The term subcategorization is used to refer to information about a word's complement options. This information helps ensure that lexical items appear in the appropriate types of tree structures.