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52 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
analogy
a historical process which projects a generalization from one set of expressions to another. these types of changes involve relations of similarity
immediate/horizontal/syntagmatic analogy
terms likely to occur in sequential form in discourse
non-immediate/vertical/paradigmatic analogy
terms never occur in the same place-mutually exclusive
analogical leveling
reduces the number of allomorphs a form has; it makes paradigms more uniform (ex: throw/threw/thrown being replaced with throw/throwed/throwed)
analogical extension
extends the already existing alternation of some pattern to new forms which did not formerly undergo the alternation (ex: 'dived' being replaced by 'dove')
recutting/metanalysis
involves a change in the structural analysis, in the interpretation of which phonological material goes with which morpheme in a word or construction
backformation
when a word is assumed to have a morphological composition which it did not originally have, usually a root plus affixes, so that when the affixes are removed, a new modified root is created, as when children say "can i have a chee?" thinking that this is the singular form of cheese.
folk etymology
cases where linguistic imagination finds meaningful associations in the linguistic forms which were not originally there and, on the basis of these new associations, either the original form ends up being changes somewhat or new forms based on it are created
must have evidence for conditioning environments; can't have unconditioned sound changes
what is a key assumption of internal reconstruction to even be able to apply it?
alloset
complementary distribution across languages or within a language
morphology
the study of the makeup of words
allomorphy
morphemes that vary in sound but not meaning (ex: -ez, -s, -is)
morphophonology
branch of linguistics that studies the phonological structure of morphemes, the combinations of phonic modifications of morphemes which happens when they are combined, and the alternative series which serve a morphological function.
morphophoneme
the phonemes or strings of phonemes that constitute the various allomorphs of a morpheme
morphologization
the creation of a bound morpheme out of an independent word....the syntactic collocation of a particular word class, such as a noun, with a particular type of clitic
grammaticalization
when a lexical word loses its lexical meaning and starts to fulfill a more grammatical function
phonetic reduction
reduction of fuller forms to phonologically shorter ones
semantic bleaching
a word losing a sense of semantic meaning
amalgamation
forms that formerly were composed of more than one free-standing word get bound together in a single word during this process
double-marking
'children'>child-ER-EN; that book OF martha'S
suppletion
when a "word" has two or more unrelated and contextually-dependent forms--you use distinct lexical items and use them for the same meaning, and you distribute them across the grammatical contexts (ex: "am" vs. "was, go" vs. "went")
replacement
ex: english "darn" instead of "damn" or "fudge" instead of "FUCK"
shared aberrancies
shared, arbitrary alternations likely ancestral patterns
analogy
perceived presence of traits between the source and the target
cognates
related forms across languages
analogs
ex: english 'plurals' /-z/ and -en
archaisms
characteristic of the language of the past, a vestige, which survives chiefly in specialized uses. commonly preserved in proverbs, folk poetry, folk ballads, etc.
internal reconstruction
used to determin earlier forms of a single language. it studies a single language's earlier form
cliticization
free word>phonologically found word
speech community
community whose speakers use the same linguistic code or codes
speech network
all the individuals that a given person interacts with on a regular basis
dialectology
study of regional (geographically-determined) dialects
dialects
distinctive speech of a regional speech community
isoglosses
boundaries of areas with different linguistic forms
diglossia
a high language/dialect versus a low language/dialect
digraphia
two or more writing or orthographic systems, one associated with a high language/dialect, the other with a low language/dialect
rural dichotomy
relatively more numberous/intense contacts with people on a daily basis
urban dichotomy
relatively few/superficial contacts with people on a daily basis
sociolect
distinctive speech of a social group
sociolinguistic markers
variables that show statistically significant variation along the lines of social variables (age, class, status, gender, race or ethinicity, occupation, etc.) but are not absolute
post-vocalic /r/
a clear social marker of class
polylectal/multilingual speech communities
some speakers may switch from one code to another during the course of a conversation
code-switching
an index of relative social relationships
standard language or dialect
the norm that is regularized through official processes and promoted (sometimes exclusively) as the language of official uses (gov, law, education)
vernacular language
non-standard varieties of the same language
family tree model
traditional model of language diversification that attempts to show how languages diversify and how language families are classified
wave diffusion model
assumes that language change is the result of differential spread or diffusion of innovations throughout space
Gravity/hierarchial model
spread of merger from urban areas to rural areas--associated with northern cities and sophisitication
Contra-hierarchial model
from rural areas to suburban to urban areas
polylectal speech communities
two or more dialects of a language can influence each other through their normal contact
amplifiers of change
cities, upwardly mobile classes, loose social networks (interaction with many people, but briefer and less frequent), status (leaders), gender
barriers of change
rural, less mobile classes, dense social networks in a population (interaction with few people who are close kind and peers, longer and more frequent), status, gender