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173 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Define allophones
different sound that stem from the same mental understanding
What are the 2 parts of language?
1) Lexicon - mental list of words

2) Grammar:
->phonology - sounds and how sounds are used
->morphology - study of word formation
->syntax - formation of sentences and rules for creating sentences
->semantics - study of meaning at the sentence level
What are the 2 methods of observing language acquisition?
1) naturalistic approach
-usually done by parents
-involves listening and recording anything interesting
longitudianl study = 1 kid over exended pd of time

2)experimental studies
-x-sectional studies = take groups of kids at idiff leveles of skills and compare
-must design specific tesst to determine certiain thing
-done by pros
what are the 3 types of experimental studies?
1) comprehension
-see if kid knows meaning
-passive structure OVS
-active structure SVO

2) Production task
-have child descrive situations

3) Imitation
-child repeats what you say
In what order to kids learn sounds?
1) vowels
2) stops/nasals
3) bilabials(fricatives and affricatives)
4) alveolar
5) veolar
6) interdentals
where are sounds more easily heard and contrasted? Front or back of word?
T/F, kids can perciee the diff in contrast in words before they can produce it
T, recall Fis vs. Fish
What is Syllable Deletion?
-kids have the tendency to delete unstressed syllables

spaghetti = ge
What is syllable simplification?
when there is a consonant cluster, kids have the tendency to reduce the cluster (CCR) -OR- you delete the final consonant, called DELETION
what are the 4 types of CCR's?
1) [s]+stop/nasal = delete [s]

2) stop/nasal+liquid = delete liquid

3) fricative+liquid = delete liquid

4) nasal+voiceless stop = delete nasal
Define continuents
-all manners BUT stops and nasals

-sounds in which air is not obstructed
What are the 5 forms of substitutions?
1)Stopping: (continuent)->(stop)
-nasals stop to [pb]
-coronials stop to [td]
-dorsals stop to [kg]

2)Fronting: substitute consonant with one on the left
-not fronted passed the alveolar place
-voiced->voiced ; vice versa
-can't jump manners

3)Gliding: (liquid)->(glide)
-voiced to voiceless allowed and vice versa

4)Denasalisation: like stopping, but with nasals
-seems to only occur at the end of the sentence

5)Voicing assimilation
-initial consonants become voiced in anticipation of the vowel
In what order do kids attain their vocab?
4)social words
What are the 4 strategies/assumptions for acquring word meaning?
1)Whole object assumption
-new word refers to the entire object

2)Type assumption
-new word regers all to all things of same type

3)Basic Level assumption
-new word refers to types of objects that are alike in basic ways

4)Context clues
-helgs child figure meaning of sentence via interpretation
What are the 4 types of meaning errors?
1) Overextensions - meaning of childs word is more general than the adult form

2) Underextensions - meaning is overly restricted, prtotypical members

3) Verb meanings - verbs can have a number of things associated with them... therefore shit can happen

4) Dimensional terms
i)big/small b/c more general
ii)1-D terms after b/c more restricted
What are overgeneralizations?
-important in morphological developement
-kid applies one rule to everything (eg: eated)
What are the 3 steps to morphological developmetn?
1) case-by-case learning
2) overuse of general rule
3) mastery of exceptions to the general rule
In what order are Morpheme's learned?
1) {-'ing}
2) {-s} plu
3) {-'s} poss
4) the, a
5) {-ed}
6) {-s} 3rd per sing
7) auxillary 'be'
What are the 6 determining factors to morpheme learning?
1) Frequent occurrence in the uttereances final position. ie, where the morpheme ends up

2) Syllabicity: does the morpheme make it's own syllable?

3) Absence of homophony: morphines learned first if they don't exhibit homophony

4) Fewer exceptions to the morpheme = faster learning

5) Allomorphic invariance. more = slower learning

6) Clearily discernable symantic function.
-can youguess what it means?
- easier = faster learning
How are words formed?
1) Derivation
-involves adding prefixes or suffixes to create new words with new meaning

2) Compounding
-putting 2 or more words together for new word with new/assimilated meaning
What are the 3 (well, maybe 4) steps to Syntactic developement?
...Babbling (6mnths -1 year)

1) One-word stage (1-1.5 years)
-1 word = 1 sentence = holophrase
-kid chooses most informative word

2) Two-word stage (1.5-2years)

3) Telegraphic stage (2-2.5years)
-basically sentences without all the right grammatical functions
Define auxillaries
-words that help the verb
eg: will, would, shall, can, could, do, did etc.
Define inversion
-inversion takes an auxillary and moves it to the front of the sentence, forming a question
Prior to inversion, how did kids ask questions?
by intonation
Which interrogative pronouns are learned first?
what and where

-followed by who, when, why and how
Define active voice

Define passive voice
S-V-O, emphasizes the agent

O-V-(S), emphasizes the theme
What makes language acquisition possible?
-they really don't know
-say adult speech and feedback has something to do with it
Define recast
when an adult provides corrections to kid
What is the role of cognitive development in language learining?
1) Object Permanence
-the child konws that an object exists even when they don't see it
-corresponds nicely to the vocab growth period

2) Seriation
-things can be relative to eachother in increasing or decreasing relations
-now can acquire the comparative {-'er}

3) Role of Inborn Knowledge
-AKA nativism (Noam Chomsky)
-grammar is too complex to learn from experience... therefor there must be inborn ability involved
Define Critical period
time frame of optimal language learning
-prebirth->5yrs old
-if child can't learn b 5, they are screwed
Define socio-linguistics
-focus on relation b/w what groups of individuals say
Define speech communities
-group that shores some socio-linguistic norms regarding language use (ie: age, occupation, class, etc.)
Define accent
phonetic differences
Define dialect
-phonetic, lexical, morphological, syntactic, etc. differences
-geographic dialect = dialect
-social dialect = sociolect

**if dialect difference becomes so large, may get another language**
Define what is meant by mutually intelligible,.
the language is different, yet we can understande
-like how we can understand scottish, or how swedish can understand norwegians
-not called dialext because of political construction
Define variety
-a term linguists use to describe 'everything'
-eg: dialect, languages, accents, etc.
Define discourse
interactions analyzed in speech communities
Discuss the 3 methods of Discourse Analyses
1)Ethnography of Communication
-analyzes speech events that occur in a speech situation
Setting or locale
Act sequences

2) Ethno-Methodology (AKA conversation analyses)
-Analyze different utterance patterns, therefore can figure out how shit is put together
-contains adjacency pairs, sections of conversation and more shit.

3)Text Analysis
-no need to go in depth
-a kind of discourse analysis
-concetrates on the structure of discourse
What is S.P.E.A.K.I.N.G.?
Setting or locale
Act sequences
Define style
-the amount of formality
-ppl have more then 1 style. Use dependant on social context
Define register
-employs the idea of formal/non-formal speech... but more of a ritual thing (eg: with this ring, I thee wed)
-within a register, you can have diff styles
Define jargon
when a register is connected to an occupation
Define slang
used to group membership... homie
-can become socially accepted, then no longer slang
Define adjacency pair
-pair of utterences: 1 by speaker A, 2 by speaker B
-1 has an automatic response from 2

-4 types
1) compliment
2) summons answer
3) greetings response
4) offer-refusal
What are the 3 sections of conversation?

2)Turn taking
i)select speaker and that person is obliged to speak
ii)no particular speaker is selected. then anyone can self select
iii)speaker finishes and noone answers... may get an awkward silence

Define interruption
when a speaker speaks out of turn
Define solidarity
emphasizes closeness or intimaxy... group-membership, shows that you are part of the gang
Define power
-distances yourself from the group (eg: stu/prof relationship)
Define +'ve politeness
-used to express regard and consideration to other participants

-brings you closer
Define -'ve politeness
-the idea that you give someone, with higher power, an acknowledgement of that difference inpower

-keeps you apart
Define taboo
certain things cannot be talked about in polite conversation
Define euphamism
-indirectly refers to the act, implies...
-eg: 'passed away' is a euphamism for death
Define disphamism
-like a euphamism but is delivered in a negative, almost rude way
-eg: 'kicked the bucket' is a disphamism for death
'making the beast with 2 backs' = sex
What is a reciprical relationship?
naming convention if you are the same status
Define Gender Exclusive
when words are reserved for a man, or when words are reserved for a woman
Define Gender Variables
-the idea that men have more terms for some things, woman have more terms for other things
Define a verbal hedge
-an utterance like: perhaps, maybe, sort of, etc
-a stalling technique
-woman use more than men?
-an attempt to show more confidence in a weaker arguement
-can be used anywhere in the sentence
What are the 2 types of Accomodation?
1) Convergence
-when you try to speak more like the person to whom you are speaking

2) Divergence
-make your speech more unlike the person you are speakin with
Define standard variety
-an imaginary ideal(abstract)
-the variety that the consensus views as the correct way of speaking and writing

**What standardizes varitey is that gov't accept it and promote it in education
-typically the variety of the highest register
Define linguistic insecurity
-when there are more than 1 acceptable ways to pronounce something
Define non-standard variety
-not the standard
-thought to be substandard... a defect. Not thought so anymore, no better or worse... only different
-nonstandard indicates lack of prestige in community by standard speakers
-not grammaticsally corupt, but socially corrupt.
-not grammatically less valued, socially misvalued
Define diglossia
-2 varieties being used in same sommunity for different purposes

**Purposes = Domain of Use (eg: church, home, etc.)**
Define official language
-like a standard but has been officially declared as the language of choice
Define language planning
-official policies which dictate use of language
-either kills or revitalizes a language
What are the 6 main categories of Social Influence on variation?
1) Geographical/Regional
2) Socio Economical
3) Social networks
4) Gender
5) Age
6) Ethnicity
How does Regional varietion effect variation?
-occurs b/x of diff geographic location
-involves dialectology
Define dialectology
-looks at variation across space, not time
-performs an athos survey
Define athos survey
-try to map diff dialects on a large map
-mainly done with interviews and surveys
-eventually able to draw lines called ISOGLOSSIS
-many isogloss lines = isogloss bundles
-many isogloss bundles = 2 or more varieties
Define N.O.R.M.

-the prototype speaker that old linguists used to represent the speech of the community
What are some Lexical characteristics of cdn eng?
we share some with usa and brits, but we have our own too
-eg: toque, our own meaning for pissed, etc.
What is Canadian Rising?
-when a word has a low central vowel followed by a voiceless consonant
What are some phonetic differences in NFL eng?
Lexical diff?
Morphological diff?
-delete initial H

-dright = dryness in air
-dwall = nap
-dew = drop of liquid
-mummering = getting pissed and christmas carolling

-my wife vs. me wife
-lack of plural markers following plural # (6 mile)
-generalized use of 3rd person {s}
Define a Calque
-direct translation of words or phrase 'dap-mot-dap'
How does social class effect variation?
-can be divided into high, low, etc. has to do with social standing
-how they use language reflects their perception of their class
-ppl tend to hypercorrect speech when they are aware. works the other ay too when ppl try to blend in
How does social network effect variation?
-2 different parameters

1)Density: a measure of how many speakers are interconnected within a social network

2)Plexity= refers to the number of diff networks/domains
- more domains = higher plexity = more variation
How does age effect variation?
1)Age Grading - shows there are social variations due to age

2)New forms of language most likely introduced by young ppl. eg: slang, lingo, and shit
How does gender effect variation?
-males use certain forms, females use certain forms
-males use more nonstandard forms than females when no change in language
-when there is a chnage in language, females use more of the incoming words... b/c they are caregivers
How does Ethnicity effect variation?
-depends on how the ethnic group identifies itself as a speech community
-do I need to retain my viet?
-ethnolinguistic vitality = ways to maintain language
What are pidgins?
-when 2 groups of different languages come together and form a very basic language
-few rules, few lexicon, no redundancy, etc.
-has no native speakers and many pidgins are predominantly used as a lingua franca
What are creoles?
-when pidgins are taught to kids as a first language
-grammar and lexicon develops from creoles very quickly
-creols simpler than language but more complex then pidgins
Define lingua franca
-a modified or neutral language so that groups of differing languages can communicate
Define lexifier language
-language where most of the words came from
What terms are used in comparing a lower language to the lexifier language?
-the standard language

-a mixture between the standard and creole, variations on how to say same thing

-the creole, most diff from the standard
Define code switching
-alternates languages during the same utterance
-occurs because of 2 reasons
1)Metaphorical - speaker wants solidarity or distance fomr community
2)Situational - switch code because required by the situation
What is historical linguistics?
-concerned whith both the description and explanation of language change
Why do languages change? 5 reasons
1) Articulatory Simplification
2) Spelling Pronunciation
3) Analogy
4) Reanalysis
5) Forms of contact
Define Analysis.
-reflects the preference of speakers for regular patterns over irregular ones
-typically involves the overextension or generalization of a rule.
-eg: sing/sung, drink/drunk, swim/swum. SWUM is the result of analogy
Define Reanalysis.
-common in morphological change
-involves an attempt to attribute a compound or root + affix structure to a word that formerly was not broken down into component morpohemes.
-eg: hamburger, where burger was reanalysed into a morpheme
Define Articulatory Simplification
-tends towards efficiency
-ease of articulation
Define Spelling changes
-since the written form of a word can differ from the way it is pronounced, a new pronunciation can arise that seems to relect more closely the spelling of the word
Define Language/Forms of contact.
-refers to the event where speakers of a language interacts with the speakers of another language. Borrowing and Hypercorrection may occur

-borrows words or sounds from dif lang and use in own lexicon

-occurs when a speaker who is attempting to speak another dialect or language overgeneralizes particular rules. Aware of intervocalic voicing
-eg: cdn ladder&latter vs brits.
What are sequential changes?
List them and their sub categories.
Sequential changes occur when 1 seg changes the other seg.

-Place and/or Manner of Articulation

5)Weakening and Deletion
---Vowel reduction

6)Consonant strengthening
-Glide strengthening
What is assimilation?
List and describe the 8 possibilities
-a type of sequential change
-1 seg changes the other seg for ease of articulation by making it more like itself.
-8 types:
1)Place Assimilation
-change in place (front<->back)

2)Manner Assimilation
-Change in manner (Stop<->Vowel)

3)Voice Assimilation

4)Total assimilation
-creates geminates

-the effect that front vowels and glides have on stops, makin their place of articulation more PALATAL

-preceded by Palatalization
-stop becomes an affricate

-the effect that a nasal consonant has on an adjacent vowel, making the vowel more nasal

-deals with vowels only
-(V1)(C)(V2) where V2 effects the pronunciation o V1, making V1 round or unround according to itself. Like and like
What is dissimilation?
-a type of sequential change
-quite rare
-process where 1 seg becomes LESS like the other
-occurs when it would be difficult to articulate or perceive 2 similar sounds in close proximity. Eg: anma->alma
What is Epenthesis?
-type of sequential change
-involves the insertion of a C or V in anticipation of an upcoming sound.
-eases articulation
-note, the inserted C or V acts as a bridge between the clustered environment (C's??). Similar in labial, nasal, and voicing... look at Aug8 or pg 217 to understand
What is Metathesis?
-type of sequential change
-involves transposition of segments
-segments can be adjacent or at a distance
Define Weakening and Deletion
-a type of sequential change
-vowels and consonants are subject to weakening (becoming softer, voiced) or may become deleted all together.

For Vowels
-Vowel reduction

For Consonants
Fully explain Vowel weakening and deletion.
-vowel deletion commonly involves a word final vowel (APOCOPE) and a word internal (SYNCOPE)
-a vowel in an unstressed syllable is susceptible to deletion, especially when a nearby neighbouring syllable is stressed

-Vowel deletion is commonly preceded by bowel reduction, in which a full bowel is reduced to a schwa-like vowel
Fully explain consonant weakening and deletion
-they don't simply vanish, they undergo a weakenin first and then they are deleted

-the typical pattern for weakening and deletion is:

geminates->voiceless stops-> voiceless frics -OR- voiced stops->voiced frics->gone!!!
Define degemination
-geminates weaken to non-geminaes
Define frication
-stops weaken to fricatives
Define Rhotacism
-a relatively common type of weakening that typically involves the chnage of [z] to [r]
Define Consonantal strengthening.
-just as consonants can weaken, they can also strengthen

-GLIDE STRENGTHENING (glide->affricate) is the most common type
Define Segmental change
-complex segments (eg: affricatives) are subject to simplification
-most common type of segmental simplification is DEAFFRICATION which turns affricates into fricatives by eliminating the stop portion of the affricate

-note: diff pronunciations dependant on when the word was borrowed... compare [ch] in chair and chandelier
What is auditorily based change?
-most commonly called a SUBSTITUTION
-the replacement of one segment with another similar sounding segment
Explain the difference between phonetic change and phonological change.
Phonetic Change
-results in the creation of a new allophone of an already existing phoneme

Phonological Change
-sound changes which lead to changes in a language's phonological system by adding, elminating, or rearranging phonemes
-involves splits, mergers, or shifts
Define phonological splits.
-allophones of the same phoneme come to contrast with eachother due to the loss of the conditioning evironment, with the result that one or more new phonemes are created.
Define phonological mergers.
-2 or more phonemes collapse into a single one
-reduces the number of phonemes in the language
Define phonological shifts
-really large changes therefor, very rare
-series of phonemes modified in a systematic way
-includes the Great Vowel change and Grimm's law
-causes are unclear
-dipthongization allowed for more space for more vowels in the oral cavity
Define dipthongization.
-creates a dipthong (ie:aj, aw, je, etc.) from a monopthong.
-reducesthe overcrowded 7-vowel system
**the reverse of this process is called monopthongization**
Define bound morphemes
-morphemes that can't exist by themselves
Define unbound morphemes (AKA free morphemes
-morphemes that can exist by themselves
Define morphology.
-morphological changes to the lexicon resultin from analogy and reanalysis as well as changes involving he addition of loss of affixes.
Define Grammaticalization.
-the addition of affixes to the lexicon
-regular words may become a grammatical form (ie:affix) over time
-eg: dom='power'... now dom is affix in kingdom
Define Fusion
-specific type of grammaticalization where words develop into affixes (eg:kingdom)
What is the main reason for losing affixes?
-lack of use (ie: bora='rules' but not used therefore lossed)

-can also be lost through sound change
Define Sythetic languages.
-languages which use case markings (ie: nominative, accusative, genitive, dative) to express class and such.
Define Analytic languages.
-langues which DO NOT use case markings.
-these are heavily structured languages therefor do not need case markings. Information is known because they have a specific position in the sentence
Define Analogy
-basically the same idea as overgeneralization
-rules used to express plural, possessiveness, etc. of one thing is used to express the same to another thing.
-eg: handa->hand->hands
Define Reanalysis
-a false morpheme boundary decided upon by a speech community
-eg: '{Ham}{burger}' created the idea that the morpheme {burger} can exist on it's own (ie: fishburger) despite the fact that it has no actual meaning.
-burger was therefor reanalysed
Define Folk Etymology.
-the eventual form of a reanalyzed is the result of a speech community making a mistake
-they have given the word historical meaning and believed it
-a misinterpretation of the history of the word (ie: burger)
-like re-analysis
Word order in old english was more variable than that of modern english.
-old English had an extensive sytem of case marking, therefor allowing it to be more variable yet understood
-modern English lack the case markings therefor relies on structure to get the idea across
What is the typical word order in a typical sentence?

What can change this word order?

-any sentence can be inverted to VSO, but it sounds goofy...
-nowadays, inversion of auxillaries is the preferable way of inversion
What does lexical change involve?
-involves addition and creation
-occurs mainly because of technology or contact with other cultures
-naming the nameless = filling the LEXICAL GAP
What are the 2 ways to create new lexicon?
-major factor in language chnage
-can take place between dominant and non-dominant languages
--Substratum: dominant borrows from non-dominant
--Superstratum: non-dominant borrows from dominant
--Adstratum: no domincance between languages but they borrow anyways

2)Use of word formation processes
-**only need to know compound and derivation(Ch.4)
How do languages distinguish between Subject, Verbs, and Objects?
-all languages make the distinction between SVO
-either marked by case marking (as in synthetic languages) or word order (as in analytic languages)
Define Substratum
-term used when a dominant languange borrows from a non-dom language
Define Superstratum
-term used when a non-dom lang borows from a dom lang
Define Adstratum
-term used when there is no dominance between languages, yet they borrow words from eachother anyways
Define Semantic change.

List and define the 7 types.
-changes in word meaning
-changes occur rationally, ie: they don't suddenly jump meaning

1)Semantic Broadening
-meaning of the word becomes more general/inclusive (eg:bird)

2)Semantic Narrowing
-meaning of the word becomes less inclusive (eg:meat)

-a word becomes more +'ve (eg:pretty)

-a word becomes more -'ve

5)Semantic Weakening
-results from people's tendency to exagerate

6)Semantic Shift
-a word loses its former meaning and takes a new/unrelated meaning (eg:hearse->frame for church candles->vehicle)

-a wrod with concrete meaning becomes abstract
Define Lexical Diffusion.
-linguistic change first starts wth a few words and then gradually spreads through the vocabulary of the language
-usually the result of stress changes, changing verbs to nouns (ie: prese'nt vs. pre'sent)
-new words can also be created through different sound changes (ie: s for h in cuban spanish)
How do language changes spread?
1)Lexical Diffusion

2)Political, Social & cultural influence
How do political, social and cultural influences effect language change spread?
-people with power adopt a particular form and that form diffuses downward
-for a language change to take place, the innovation must be accepted by the linguistic community as a whole
Define Genetically Related Languages.
-languages that share a common ancestry
Define Cognates
-words that are genetically related
Define Etymon
-the protoform of the word
What are the 2 main strategies used in Language reconstruction?
1)Phonetic Plausability Strategy

2)Majority Rules Strategy
Define Internal Reconstruction
-like reconstructing languages by comparing to other languages, but does not compare to other languages
-done within the same language
-loos at morphemes between similar words and tries to determine which is the original morpheme
What is Indo-European?
-a hypothesized language, built from comparative and internal reconstruction.
-often called Proto Indo-European (PIE)
Who is responsible for creating PIE?
-discovered by Sire William Jones (noticed similarities between languages and postulated mother/daughter language concept
-Rask invented the methods for reconstruction
-Jacob Grimm discovered the Germanic Consonant Shift (ie: Grimm's Law)
Define Grimm's Law
-affected the vowels of Germanic Languages (eg: English)

asp b->b
asp d->d
asp g->g
Define linguistic typology
-concerned with the investigation of structural similarities among langages that are not genetically related
Define the Naturalness of language change.
-CV is the most natural of all syllable types, languages will change accordingly to achieve this
-3 dif ideas that support this claim
1)all languages have it
2)number is diff sound changes that result in CV
3)CV is one of the first syllable types acquired during language acquisition
What is the difference between Dialect and Language?
-both are varieties, main difference is that government has chosen one to be the 'language' over the over
-if they are mutually intelligible, they are DIALECTS
-if they are mutually unintelligible, they are LANGUAGES
Define Moribund
-an almost extinct language
What are the 3 different approaches used in language classification?
1)Genetic Classification
-relates languages based on ancestry

2)Typological Classification
-classifies languages according to their structural characteristics, without regard for genetic relationships

3)Areal Classification
-identifies characteristics shared by langages that are in geographical contact
How long does it take to kill a language?
-can happen in as short as 3 years.

Grandparents - A
Parents - A & B
Youth - B
When discussing Typological Classifications, what 3 structures/universals are we concerned with?
1)Absolute Universals
-a rule that applies to all languages (eg: all languages have CV)

2)Universal Tendency
-traits that occur in most languages (eg: low central 'a')

3)Implicational Universals
-if a language has one thing, then it will have the other thing... but NOT vice versa
-eg: stops > fricatives (where '>' means 'is implied by')
Define the Markedness Theory
-related to Implicational Universals
-for any pair of characteristics, there's gonna be one marked trait
-the marked trait will be the rarer/more complex one
-the marked trait implies the presence of the unmarked trait (ie: the more common/simple one)
stops > fricatives

What does this mean? Which is marked, which is unmarked?
-means that 'stops' are implied by 'fricatives'
-for a language to have fricatives, they MUST have stops.
-therefore, frics are marked, stops are unmarked
What are the 3 Typological generalizations and universals that we are concerned with in this class?
What are the Typological generalizations made in regards to Phonology?
-classify vowels according to size and patterns
***Universal Tendencies***
-most common vowel system contains 5 phonemes (2 hi, 2 mid, 1 lo). Front & Low vowels are generally unround, back vowels generally round
-1/2 pop have this system
***Implicational Universals***
-some languages have as few as 8 consonants
-all languages have stops (PTK most common)
-most common stop is [t]
-most common fric is [s]
-almost all languages have at least 1 nasal [n]... if 2, then [m] & [n]
-have at least 1 liquid
***Implicational Universals***
-if voiced obstruent phonemes, then it will have voiceless
-languages can be classified according to pitch
-2 types
1)Intonation-talks abot pitch at the sentence lev(eg: question vs. statement)
2)Tone-applies to the word lv (eg:Vietnamese). Has level and contour tones (simple and complex).
-CV & V syllable types are unmarked
-Phonological Constraints: certain consonants can only be at certain places in the syllable (eg: -ing/-ng can't be at O, only in Co)
In regards to Syllable structure, what does sigma, O, R, N, and Co mean?

O=onset-> describes syllables that come before the nucleus

R=rhyme-> the vowel in the syllable and all the consonants after it

N=nucleus-> the vowel. Can be a monophthong or dipthong. 1 vowel/syllable

Co=coda-> the consonant that comes after the vowel
What are the Typological generalizations made in regards to Morphology?
First off, 4 types of Morphological systems can be distinguished.

1)Isolating language (AKA Analytic)
-1 word = 1 morpheme
-therefor no bound morphemes, no affixes (eg. viet, cantoneese, mandarin, laotion)

2)Polysynthetic Language
-1 word = 1 sentence (ie. many morphemes)
-eg: Inuktitut)

3)Synthetic Languages
-multimorphemic allowed {hat}{s}
-non-sentential(not a sentence)
-2 types
a)Agglutinating: words are put together and can be taken apart. Eg {cat}{s}
b)Fusional: AKA Inflectional. Morphemes are typically expressed in multiple categories. Eg: {my} = first person + possessive + singulare. Can't divide meanings from morpheme

4)Mixed Type
-anything goes (eg: English)
-has all previous components

**These classifications don't take morpholoical word processing into account or re-duplication**
***Implicational Universals***
-if a language has only suffiexes, then it will only have post positions (eg: Japanese)
Define a language isolate
-an isolated language that can't be traced back/related to anything
-eg: Basque, Ainu
Define and Classify languages in Europe which are not in the Proto-Indo European.


Approximately how old are written languages?
approx 5000 yrs.
Define Writing.
-a sumbolic representation through graphic signs/symbols

*the link between sign and meaning is arbitrary*
What are the 2 main categories of Writing?
1)Logographic Writing
-Logogram = an individual symbol which represents shit (ie: $,#,% etc.)
-the oldest type of writing
-3 kinds
iii)Primordial Chinese Characters

2)Phonographic Writing
-symbols represent syllables or segments(an individual sound unit)
i)Syllabic Writing
- symbols indicate syllables
-can only work with languages of simple syllable type CV,V (eg:Cree, Japanese)

ii)Alphabetic Writing
-represents consonant and vowel segments (eg: english)
-1 symbol = C/V
-ignores phonetic distinction, concentrates at the phonemic level

-like alphabets, but no vowels
-consonant only alphabets
-use Diacritics to notate vowels
-eg: Arabic, hebrew
Define syllabary.
-the whole inventory of symbles used to represent syllables
Define Diacritics
-little ticks used to notate vowel usage in Abjad written languages
Define Petroglyphs
-cave pictures for things like magical rituals, esthetic purposes etc.
-not considered writings
Go over the History of Writing.
-dates back to 20,000yrs
-involed the use of petroglyphs
-not quite writing, but they started to pick up tools and engraved shit
-ancient Sumerians played a important role to writing systems developement
-they kept records on clay tablets for things such as livestock counts
-these tablets were traded like coins and were therefore marked
-these marked tablets led way to the developement of...
-picture writing
-symbols = a very abstract idea
-offers no clue of pronunciation
***diff between logograms and pictograms. Logo=word, Picto=idea***
BRIEFLY go over the evolution of writing.
-Sumarians started the change approx 5000yrs ago
-over time, pictograms became more ambiguous and abstracted, uses were therefor extended
-uses of the Rebus Principle and Acrophonic Principle furthered the extensions
-evenentually, the association between sign and meaning became deleted, and the association between sign and sound emerged.
Define Cuneiform
-simplification of sumerian logographic writing
-used a wedge-shaped stylus and logograph became simplified into lines (think Kanji)
Define Hieroglyphs
-form of pictorial communication used in Egypt
-approx 500 diff symbols
-like Sumarians, hieroglyphic signs at first represented objects, but later they became logographic as they began to be associated with words.
-developed into a mixed system of word and phonographic writing.
-eventually came to be used to represent individual consonant phonemes
-discovery of Rosetta Stone (like dictionary) allowed for more accurate translations
Define Rebus Principle
-states that a sign used for a particular thing, with a pronunciation, may be used for any other thing with the same pronunciation
-therefor deleting the relationship between sign and meaning, and creating the relationship between sign and sound
Define Acrophonic Principle
-pics eventually evolved to represent sounds, rather than words or ideas.
-crucial to the developement of true alphabets
For Chinese Writing, Define:
1)Symbolic signs
3)Phonetic Determinative
1)-pretty much like pictograms
-symbols were combined to extend meanings metaphorically

2)-units of contemporary Chinese writing
-many monosyllabic words are presented in true logographic fashion by a character consisting of a single symbol

3)-main component of a multi-element character
-provides information about the pronunciation of the corresponding morpheme

4)-a semantic component of the chinese character
-provides clues about the morpheme's meaning

5)-a system of writing Mandarin with a modified Latin alphabet
List and define the Japanese alphabets.
-basic Jap alphabet

-used for foreign words

-involves use of chinese characters

-involves use of roman alphabet
What is Hangul?
-the standard Korean writing system

***Hanja = the Korean use of the Chinese alphabet***
Draw the IPA chart.
Draw the PIE tree.