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38 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
how many layers are found in the Dentate gyrus?
3 layers
molecular
granule
polymorphic
where do the granule cells of the dentate gyrus project?
Hippocampus
what does the hippocampal sulcus seperate?
dentate gyrus and parahippocampal gyrus
where is the alveus found in relation to the hippocampus?
alveus: is a thin white matter consisting of fibers entering and exiting the hippocampus
-forms fimbria and continues as fornix
how many layers does the hippocampus consist of?
3 layers (ARCHICORTEX)
molecular layer
pyramidal layer
polymorphic layer
what do the pyramidal cells of hypothalamus do?
provide output for subiculum
what is the subiculum?
A transition between ARCHICORTEX of hippocampus and NEOCORTEX of entorhinal cortex of the parahippocampal gyrus
what are major efferent neurons of the hippocampal formation?
Subiculum pyramidal cels
what part of the basal forebrain receives large amounts of damage during Alzheimer's disease?
medial septal nuclei
where does the body of the fornix begin?
posterior end of thalamus
where do the main parts of the fornix project to?
mammillary bodies
where do the mammillary bodies project to?
anterior nucleus of thalamus
where does anterior nucleus of thalamus project?
to the cingulate gyrus via the internal capsule
where does the cingulate gyrus project information to?
frontal
parietal
occipital
temporal association cortex
entorhinal cortex
how are long term memories made?
through the circuit of Papez
-long term potentiation at synaptic sites occurs
what is a declarative memory
conscious recollection of facts and experiences
where does consolidation of declarative memories occur?
consolidation occurs in hippocampal formation
-recall occurs from many areas of the cortex
what is a non-declarative memory
implicit
nonconscious learning of skills, habits, and acquired behaviors
where are nondeclarative memories sotred?
we store them where we use them! that's all I know
what is the blood supply to the cingulate gyrus?
pericallosal artery of ACA
the temporal branches of PCA supply this structure.
parahippocampal gyrus
Posterior and Middle Cerebral arteries and the anterior choridal artery supply this:
Uncus and amygdala
what artery supplies the hippocampal formation?
anterior choroidal artery
Your patient has had severe damage to his temporal lobes what type of memory loss will he have?
Severe declarative memory loss
your patient has had severe damage to dorsal medial thalamic nucleus, what type of memory loss will he have?
severe anterograde amnesia and retrograde amnesia of 2 years
Your patient has anterograde and retrograde amnesia. You suspect alcoholism and they have a tendency to confabulate. What might you do? Diagnose?
order imaging
alcoholism can cause a thiamine deficiency
bilateral necrosis of mammillary bodies and medial diencephalic structures
This patient would be diagnosed with Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome
what are the affects of hypoxia on memory?
hypoxia: pyramidal hippocampal neurons are extremely sensitive to oxygen deprivation
short term: transient global amnesia
long term: defective memory formation
why is transient global amnesia seen in patients who have suffered short term hypoxia?
because of the sensitivity of the pyramidal cells in the hippocampal formation
the patient would be unaware of events preceding the accident and temporarily unable to form new memories
why does long term hypoxia cause cardiac arrest and or defective memory formation?
death of pyramidal neurons in the hippocampal formation
a patient has started to have dementia and memory loss. they have slowly become disoriented and had severe behavioral changes. what might be suspected?
Alzheimer's disease
why does long term hypoxia cause cardiac arrest and or defective memory formation?
death of pyramidal neurons in the hippocampal formation
what are characteristics of Alzheimer's in the brain?
Beta-Amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles primarily affecting temporal lobes, especially the hippocampal formation
a patient has started to have dementia and memory loss. they have slowly become disoriented and had severe behavioral changes. what might be suspected?
Alzheimer's disease
Are there any current treatments that can reverse or stop disease progression of Alzheimer's
NO
what are characteristics of Alzheimer's in the brain?
Beta-Amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles primarily affecting temporal lobes, especially the hippocampal formation
If there is death of basal forebrain neurons what is lost to the hippocampus?
Cholinergic input
Are there any current treatments that can reverse or stop disease progression of Alzheimer's
NO
If there is death of basal forebrain neurons what is lost to the hippocampus?
Cholinergic input