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68 Cards in this Set

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the limbic system is resbonsible for what?
the famous 5 "f's" ,feeding, fighting, feeling, flight, and...
emotional expression is more intense on what side of the face indicating they come from which hemisphere?
the left side, the right hemisphere
the limbic lobe consists of what?
the subcallosal area and th subcallosal, cingulate, parahippocampal, hippocampal, and dentate gyri.
what are the parts of the limbic system anatomacally?
limbic lobe, amygdala, nu accumbens, septal nu, hypothalamus, dorsal thalamus (habenula, anterior nu, and DM), periaqueductal gray, and ventral tegmental nucleus
what is the cingulum?
association bundles interconnecting the frontal-parietal-temporal limbic cortex
what categories of clinical disorders and spectrums are mediated by the limbic system?
anxiety DO's, mood DO's, psychosis, substance abuse, memory DO's.
describe the track of the papez circuit.
begin at the entorhinal area, the gateway into the hippocampus and part of the parahippocampal gy, to the dentate gy through the tract of the fornix to synapse in either the septal nu, anterior thalamic nu, or mammilary body. The septal nu sends axons to another tract, the mamillary bodies send axons to the anterior thalamic nu via the mammilothalamic tract and then the anterior thalamic nu sends axons over the corpus callosum to the cingulate gy which sends axons to the parahippocampal gy and entorhinal area via the cingulum to complete the circuit.
what does the papez circuit do?
the reverberating circuit focuses, mediates, and intensifies fellings or emotions. It is also a substrate for stress, anxiety, minor depression, and suffereing
what would a cingulotomy do?
cuts papez circuit and decreases anxiety and suffering
what do the stria medullaris thalami fibers convey?
from the septal nu (usually stimulated by olfaction or papez) to these fibers to synapse in the habenula of the dorsal thalamus which sends axons to the reticular formation feeding centers to stimulate salivation, swallowing, and secretion of stomach acid
in humans, the papez circuit is mainly stimulated by what?
neocortex sensory anlyzer, especially vision
our feelings or affect will cause certain effects or motor responses which are categorized how?
catabolic reactions of flight or flight and anabolic reactions of eating, drinking, and sex (which I thought would be catabolic, but hey...)
distinguish between habituation and sensitization of a reflex memory.
habituation is reduced response to repetitive stimulus while sensitization is increased response to a repetitive stimulus
procedural memory involves what?
motor skill memory involving the cerebellum
associative memory involves what?
the amygdala which involves avoidance responce in the subconscious memory
declarative memory involves what?
visual-spatial and verbal data processed via the hippocampus
on the neuronal level what does reflex habituation involve? reflex sensitization?
inactivation of Ca channels so less NT; inactivation of K channels thus more NT release. There is no post synaptic change
what mechanisms of memory processing do cause post synaptic changes? What can these mechanisms result in?
long term potentiation and long term depression (the correcting mechanism). LTP can result in growth of new synaptic connections (note the dentate gyrus retains the capacity for neurogenesis)
what are the two functions of the hippocampus?
role in papez circuit and processing short term memory into longterm memory
where are the trigger cells for retrieval of long term memory located?
in the lateral temporal lobe.
a lesion where would result in impairment to form new memories? what is this called?
medial temporal lobe (hippocampus). anterograde amnesia
a lesion of the lateral temporal lobe will result in what?
retrograde amnesia, inability to recall long term memories
since some of memory transfer is thought to be cortico-cortical, what structures may be injured bulaterally and still not completely eliminate memory processing?
mammy bodies, cingulum, and the fornix
what kind of amnesia is wernicke-korsakoff syndrome? what causes it? what may be damaged causing korsakoff's amnestic syndrome? wernicke's encephalopathy (and symptoms)?
anterograde (no new long term memories). alcohol abuse and thiamine AKA vit B1. mammy bodies and DM thalamic nu. cerebellum, abducens, oculomotor, and vestibular nuclei resulting in opthalmoplegia, ataxia, and nystagmus
what pathology is caused by loss of cholinergic input from Nu basalis of meynert in ventral pallidum? what is the characteristic pathology?
alzheimers. Beta amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary triangles (tau protein with excess of phosphate molecules)
describe temporal lobe epilepsy AKA psychomotor epilepsy.
caused by hippocampal lesion. seizure DO preceded by sensory hallucinations (usually olfactory "uncinate fits") that are characterized by anterograde amnesia, automatisms (automatic execution of associative movements which are usually feeding activities like swallowing via the stria medularis, and perseverations (perpetuation of a motor acivity).
what does the amygdala do? where do its fibers project to and what are they called?
involved in subconscious and associative learning, alerts and directs attention, and directs hypothalamus and frontal lobe in behavioral responses to instincts and associative learnings esp. related to fear, aggression, food, and sex. The ventral amygdalofugal pathway (associated with the rage reaction) projects to the hypothalamus (over the uncus) and the entorhinal area. The hypothal will then project to the DM of the thal and then to the frontal lobe for decision making. The stria terminalis also projects to the hypothal and entorhinal area, but gets to the hypothal by going posterior to the mammies.
what are the male and female differences in terms of the amygdala?
left amygdala in females develops strong connections with the limbic cortex while the right amy in men becomes dominant and has strong connections with motor areas.
how does the amygdala mediate the rage rxn?
via the ventral amygdalofugal pathway. The hypothal lets mediates the immediate undirected "sham rage" while the amy begins to intensify the rage response which will not stop rising until the sham rage is complete
what do lesions to the amygdala cause?
palcidity (loss of self protective response), loss of associative learning, psychic blindness (type of visual agnosia characterized by a loss of visual awareness coupled with a regression to oral iinspection). Note that placidity also occurs with lesions of the ventral amygdalofugal pathway and/or anterior limbic cortex
bilateral ablation of the anterior temporal lobes including the amygdala and the hypothal is called what and what does it result in?
kluver bucy syndrome which is characterized by psychic blindness, placidity, deviant pr hypersexual behavior, and anteriograde amnesia
loss of pleasure centers is comparable to what?
clinical depression: inactivity, non social behavior, irritability, eating and sleep DO's...
the septum pellucidum, septal nu, and the nu accumbens are all what?
pleasure centers
where in the brain is pleasure experienced and what is the chemical basis of pleasure?
cortical and subcortical limbic areas including prefrontal and anterior temporal areas. Opoid peptides and monoamines produce feelings of well being and inhibit slow pain
where are beta endorphins (opoid peptides)?
hypothal and pit. gland
enkephalins and dynorphins (opoid peptides) are released where?
all along the ventricular system, very close to the slow pain-pleasure axis which includes the septal nu, hypothal, amygdala, intralaminar nu, periaqueductal gray, reticular formation and the substantia gelatinosa of the cord
what are the monoamines involved with the limbic system?
serotonin, NE, DA, and ach
serotonin comes from what nucleus? What are its effect inascending and descending tracts?
raphe nucleus. Ascending goes to the medial forebrain bundle and involved in mood elevation, behavior and the sleep wake cycle (note histamine is involved in sleep wake cycle as well). The descending tracts are involved with inhibiting slow pain transmission
NE comes from what nuclei? what are its effects in ascending and descending tracts?
the locus ceruleus. its ascending tracts go through the medial forebrain bundle and are involved in elevation of attention (arrousal), mood elevation, memory enhancement, regulation of sleep wake cycle. The descending tracts are involved with inhibition of slow pain transmission.
DA comes from what nuclei? what are its effects in ascending tract?
the ventral tegmental area. Ascending tracts go through the medial forebrain bundle and play a big role in motivation, reward, and enhanced cognition.
all drugs of abuse stimulate what pathway?
the dopaminergic mesolimbic pathway
Ach from the basal nu has what affects? from the ARAS?
memory processing and retention. consciousness.
why are the individual effects of monamines difficult to study?
there are multiple interactions between monoamine centers.
the medial forebrain bundle is the main ascending pathway for what from the brainstem? what is its path?
for the brainstem ARAS (Ach) and the monoamines. This diffuse pathway will synapse in the hypothal, dorsal thal, septal nu (limbic) and the neocortex (esp. frontal lobe)
decreased serotonin is involved with what disorders?
depression, aggression, eating and other compulsive disorders, and tourette syndrome
decreased NE is involved with what disorders? increased NE?
depression. anxiety disorders
decreased DA is involved with what disorders of limbic origin? increased DA in mesolimbic area?
depression. Schizophrenia
Decreased Ach is involved with what disorder?
chronic stress is a major cause of depression. what pathology is associated with these two?
inhibited growth and memory processing in the dentate gyrus neurons of the hippocampus (smaller hippo).
why do antidepressants take time to have effect?
the drugs indirectly stimulate neurons in the dentate gyrus of the hippo to proliferate after a few weeks
what are the chemical and physical effects of acute stress (nervous alertness)?
the limbic system is stimulated to release NE and the amygdala and the hippocampus are stimulated for enhanced memory and activity (flashbulb memory). The hypothal is then stimulated to activate the sympathetic nervous system and thus the adrenal medulla for release of epi and NE and thus flight or fight
chronic stress AKA nervous tirdness has what chemical and physical effects?
CRH from cortical neurons affect the limbic system by enhancing the activity of the amygdala and decreasing the activity of the hippo (thus it shrinks like in depressed patients therefore use SSRI's), the hypothal is stimulated and thus CRF to the pit. gland and ACTH in the blood to the adrenal cortex to release cortisol. Note that SSRI's stimulate hippo to regrow via 2nd messengers and brain derived neurotrophic factor which also decreases cortisol peripherally and centrally
in chronic stress, what other things have simillar effects to SSRI's?
exercise, electroshock, estrogen, Li, microglia proliferation (immune system), and sonic hedgehog protein
what signalling peptides are associated with reward?
leptin, gherlin, and orexins
possible etiology of schizophrenia?
excess paring back (degeneration) of prefrontal and anterior temporal areas that occurs in late teens in order to form our judgement centers
what are the positive signs and symptoms of schizophrenia? negative?
positive means something added to while negative is something subtracted from. Positives are delusions and hallucinations. negatives are impaired judgement and thought processing, flat affect, and low frontal lobe activity during problem solving and decision making
what is the pathology and chemical imbalance in schizophrenia?
widened sulci in prefrontal area, shallow left superior temporal gyrus, and enlarged ventricles. DA is increased in limbic areas from the ventral tegmental area bc DA activity is diminished in the frontal lobe.
older antipsychotic drugs alleviate what schizophrenic symptoms and what is a major side effect?
the positive symptoms and may result in tardive dyskinesia which is choreatic movements simillar to huntington's
summarize the effects of DA and its nuclei and respective tracts.
The substantia nigra sends axons via the nigrostriatal tract to affect movement. The ventral tegmental area will send axons to the mesocortical tract to affect mentation (cognitive function) and the mesolimbic tract to affect mood and motivation (reward)
the sensory analyzer part of the insular cortex does what. lesion to it?
complex integration of sensory, autonomic, and limbic inputs. Craving and compulsion associated with drug addiction disappears following lesions of the insula
what are the three zones of the frontal lobe and their functions?
the tertiary zone is the prefrontal cortex that makes decisions and judgements then travels to the secondary zone (premotor cortex) and the primary zone (motor cortex) for motor response
a lesion to the right frontal lobe will result in what? left frontal lobe?
euphoria (from positive personality centers in the left). fearful, withdrawn, and depressed personality (the negative personality centers in the right remain)
bilateral prefrontal deficits and temporal lobe defects are seen in what disorders?
schizophrenia, pick's disease, and ADHD (as well as basal ganglia and cerebellar shrinkage)
Describe Pick's disease?
characterized by pick intracellular inclusion bodies in frontal and temporal lobes. Symptoms include loss of inhibition, rudeness, verbal and sexually aggressive...
sensory info comes to the prefrontal cortex via what? limbic info comes to the orbital frontal cortex (prefrontal cortex) via what?
superior longitudinal - arcuate fasciculus. Uncinate fasciculus
what are the functions of the prefrontal cortex?
judgement and decision making, concentration and focus, imagination, creativity, abstract thought, ambition, goal orientation, morality ,religion, and long term adaptation
bilateral lesions to the lateral prefrontal lobes results in what?
weakening of volitional control, loss of initiative and motivation, loss of concentration, dyscalculia, apathy, impulsive, loss of imagination and creativity, loss of morality and anxiety and guilt, frontal gait apraxia, and frontal release of primitive reflexes (grasping, mouth puckering, and glabellar-tapping on forehead causes multiple eye blinks)
bilateral orbital prefrontal cortex lesions will do what?
this is major input for limbic system, thus we see disinhibition of primitive drives AKA emotional incontinence, uninhibited irresponsible behavior, euphoric, excessive pointless verbosity, self gratification without regard for social or moral standards, live in present, anosmia (can't smell), and incontinence in medial prefrontal lesions