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28 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
What is a vaccine?
a substance prepared from killed or weakened microorganisms that is shot into the body to produce immunity.
A virulent is....
referring to the deadliness of a disease-causing agent.
What is a transformation?
some organism underwent a change.
A bacteriophage is..
a virus that infects bacteria.
True or False:
Griffith didn't discover transformation when he showed that harmless bacteria could turn virulent when they were mixed with bacteria that caused disease.
What are nucleotides?
a subunit of nucleic acids consisting of a nitrogenous base, a sugar, and a phosphate group.
A deoxyribose is..
a five-carbon sugar.
What is Adenine?
a purine base, a component of nucleotides
What is guanine?
a nitrogen base of the purine class a component of DNA and RNA nucleotides.
What is Thymine?
a nitrogenuous base of the pyrimidine class a component of DNA.
What is Cytosine?
A nitrogenous base of the pyrimidine class a component of RNA and DNA
What are pyrimidines?
Thymine and Cytosine
Base-pairing rules are..
Chargaff's rules that state the amount of adenine equals the amount of thymine and the amount of guanine equals the amount of cytosine.
What is double helix?
a spiral staircase of two strands of nucleotides twisting around a central axis.
What is complementary?
a characteristic of nucleic acids in which the sequence of bases on one strand determines the sequence of bases onthe other.
Replication is..
the process ofsynthesizing a new strand of DNA
Helicases are...
enzymes that unwinds a DNNA molecule's double helix before replication.
What is a replication fork?
the point at which the double helix separates.
DNA polymerases are...
enzymes that catalyzes the replication of DNA
True or False:
Replication does begin at one end of the DNA molecule and end at the other.
Introns are...
noncoding sequences or intervening sequences.
Exons are..
Nucleotide segments that code for amino acids.
What are multigene families?
Clusters of almost identical sequences.
True or False:
The nucleotide sequences of each of the 12 hemoglobin genes are clearly related to each other.
Are individual genes scattered randomly abount on chromosomes?
What are Transposons?
Genes that have the ability to move from one chromosomal location to another.
When a transposon jumps to a new location what happens?
it inactivates a gene or causes mutations.
True or False:
Scientists have discovered that some genes are able to prevent the ill effects caused by mutation.