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203 Cards in this Set

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What is Natural selection?
The evolutionary process that favors individuals of a species that are best adapted to survive and reproduce
What did Charles Darwin believe?
That of the young born to different species, the ones who survive were probably superior in a number of ways to those who did not
What is the theory of adaptation?
That survivors of differnt species survive because they are better adapted to their world, and leave most offspring
What is adaptive behavior?
behavior that promotes an organism's survival in the natural habitat (adpting to particular places, climates, food
What is evolutionary psychology?
emphasizes the importance of adaptation, reproduction, and "survival of the fittest" in shaping behavior
Referring to evolutionary psychology what does "fit" mean?
The ability to bear offspring that survive long enough to bear offspring of their own
What does David Buss believe?
evolution influences how we make decisions, how aggressive we are, our fears and our mating patterns
How can David Buss' belief be explained?
if our ancestors were hunters and needed to travel to find food-he would need more than physical traits-he would need spatial thinking
Evolutionary Developmental Psychology. Explain the extended "juvenille" period.
an extended juvenille period evolved because of a need for a larger brain, humans take longer to become sexually mature, needed to learn complexity of social
Evolutionary Developmental Psychology. Explain the aspects of childhood.
Many aspects of childhood function as preparations for adulthood and were selected over the course of evolution. ie-play teaches children a lot that can help them adapt as adults
Evolutionary Developmental Psychology. Explain the aspects of childhood as to selective adaptation.
Some characteristics of childhood were to help children adapt to their immediate environment and not as adult preparation
Evolutionary Developmental Psychology. Explain how evolved psychological mechanisms are domain specific.
a specific aspect of a person's psychological makeup, specific modules for information processing-foundation for soc-cog devel.
What is the thrust of evolutionary theory?
That individuals live long enough to reproduce and pass on their characteristics.
What did Paul Baltes say about the benefits of evolutionary selection as we age?
That the benefits decrease with age, selection primarily operates during first half of life, reproduction
What does Baltes say increases as evolutionary selection decreases?
The need for culture increases. As adults weaken physically, literacy, medical and social support to maintain cognitive skills
Explain Albert Bandura's bidirectional view towards evolution.
environmental and biological conditions influence one another
What mechanism do we have to pass characteristics from one generation to the next?
principles of genetics, we each carry a genetic code that we inherited from our parents (single cell weighing one 20th million oz)
What are chromosomes?
Threadlike substances that contain DNA, there are 23 pairs of chromosomes
What is DNA?
Deoxyriboneucleic acid, a complex molecule that contains genetic information. Shaped like a double helix-spiral staircase
What are genes?
Units of hereditary information, short segments of DNA, direct cells to reproduce and assemble proteins
What purpose do proteins serve?
They are the building blocks of cells as well as regulators that direct the body's processes, more proteins than genes
What is the human genome?
All of the approximately 30,000 human genes, humans have about 20-25,000. Consists of many dependent genes
What is the activity of genes affected by?
their environment
What is mitosis?
When a cell's nucleus-including the chromosomes-duplicates itself and the cell divides. 2 new cells formed each with exact same DNA as parent cell
What is meiosis?
Cell division which produces cells with only one copy of each chromosome, cells divide twice forming 4 cells with only half the gentic info of parent cell/egg,sperm
What is fertilization?
Egg and sperm fuse to form a sigle cell-a zygote the 2 sets of unpaired chromosomes combine
What is a genotype?
a person's genetic heritage, the actual genetic material
What is a phenotype?
genetic material consisting of observable characteristics
What is the dominant-recessive genes principle?
If one gene of a pair is dominant and one is recessive, the dominant gene overrides recessive,if both of a pair are recessive it gets to exert influence
What is X-linked inheritance?
The term used to describe the inheritance of a mutated gene that is carried on the X chromosome, males are affected-only have 1 X, women can be carriers
What is genetic imprinting?
occurs when genes have differing effects depending on whether they are inherited from the mother or father, imprinted gene dominates over one that has not been imprinted
What is polygenic inheritance?
Occurs when many genes interact to influence a characteristic, polygenically determined
Explain Down Syndrome.
caused by an extra copy of the chromosome 21. 1-1,000 births Round face, flattened skull, extra skin overeyelids, protruding tongue, short limbs, retardat
What is Klinefelter syndrome?
Disorder in which males have an extra X chromosome,(XXY)undeveloped testes, enlarged breasts, become tall
What is Fragile X syndrome?
Abnormality of the X chromosome (constricted and may break,mental retardation learning disability or short attention span
What is Turner syndrome?
In females either an X is missing or the second X is partially gone.Short stature, webbed neck, infertile, trouble with math, verbal skills good
What is the XYY syndrome?
The male has an extra Y chromosome, contributes to aggression and violence
What is Phenylketonuria? (PKU)
Genetic disorder in which the the individual cannot properly metabolize phenylaline, an amino acid.
mental retardation, hyperacti
What is sickle-cell anemia?
Genetic disorder that affects the red blood cells. Cells die quickly causing anemia and early death
Define amniocentesis.
Prenatal medical procedure in which a sample of amniotic fluid is withdrawn by syringe and tested for chromosome or metabolic disorders
What is ultrasound sonography?
High-frequency sound waves are directed into pregnant woman's abdomen. Echo is transformed into a view of the fetus' inner structures
what is chorionic villus sampling?
Small sample of the placenta is removed for testing, slight risk of limb deformities
What does a triple maternal blood screening test for?
Measures 3 substances in mother's blood: alpha-fetoprotein, estriol and human chorionic gonadotropin
What is in vitro fertilization?
Eggs and sperm fertilized in lab dish, one or more embryos transferred to mother's womb
What is gamete intrafallopian transfer?
Doctor inserts eggs and sperm directly into a woman's fallopian tube
What is zygote intrafallopian transfer?
2 step procedure. Eggs are ferilized in lab, zygotes tranferred to fallopian tube
What are some challenges with adoption during infancy?
positive attachment bond needs to be formed
What are some challenges with adoption during early childhood?
The need to begin the process of family differentiation. Talking to their child about adoption
What are some challenges with adoption during middle and late childhood?
children may become more ambivalent about being adopted
What are some challenges with adoption during adolescence?
many youths become preccupied with the lack of physical resemblance
What is behavior genetics?
The field that seeks to discover the influence of heredity and environment on individual differencesin human traits and development
What is twin study?
study in which the behavioral similarity of identical twins is compared with the similarities of frat
What is adoption study?
Are adopted children more like adopted (environment)or biological (heredity)parents
What are passive genotype-environment correlations?
Correlations that exist when the natural parents provide a rearing environment for the child more common in infancy
What are evocative genotype-environment correlations?
Correlations exist when a child's characteristics elicit certain types of environments. smiles
What are active (niche-picking) genotype-environment correlations?
Correlations that exist when children seek out environments they find compatible and stimulating
Contrast shared and nonshared environmental experiences.
Shared:siblings' common experiences (ie family socioeconomic status)Nonshared: Their own unique experiences
What is the epigenetic view proposed by Glibert Gottlieb?
Emphasizes that development is the result of an ongoing, bidirectional interchange between heredity and environment
What is the germinal period?
The period of prenatal development that takes place in the first 2 weeks of conception, creation of zygote, attachment to wall
What is a blastocyst?
The inner mass of cells that develops during the germinal period that later develop into the embryo
What is a trophoblast?
an outer layer of cells that develops during the germinal period that will become part of the placenta
What is the embryonic period?
prenatal development 2-8 weeks rate of cell differentiation intensifies, support systems for cells organs appear
What is the placenta?
A disk-shaped group of tissues in which small blood vessels from the mother and offspring intertwine-do not join
What is the umbilical cord?
Contains 2 arteries and one vein, connects the baby to the placenta
What is the amnion?
The life support system that is a sac containing a clear fluid in shich the developing embryo floats
What is organogenesis?
Organ formation that takes place during the first 2 months of prenatal development
What is the fetal period?
2 months after conception-lasts for 7 months
What is a teratogen?
any agent that causes a birth defect, teratology studies the causes of birth defects
What are some factors that influence the severity of damage to an unborn child?
Dose of the agent, time of exposure, during germinal period may prevent implantation, later may stunt growth or organ dev
As far a timing goes, what are vulnerable times for the eyes, heart and legs?
Eyes 24-40 days, heart 20-40 days, legs 24-36 days
What is genetic susceptibility?
The type or severity of abnormalities caused by a teratogen is linked to the genotype of the pregnant woman and the fetus genotype
What is fetal achohol syndrome? (FAS)
Characterized by facial deformities and defective limbs face and heart, most are below average or retarded
What is the influence of nicotine during pregnancy?
Fetal and neonatal death, poor language and cog skills sids and resiratory problems
What is the influence of cocaine during pregnancy?
reduced birth weight, length, head circumference, impaired motor dev., high excitability, impaired audito
What is the influence of marijuana use during pregnancy?
smaller babies, learning and memory difficulties
What is the effect of heroin use during pregnancy?
behavioral difficulties, withdrawal symptoms, tremors, irritability, abnormal crying, disturbed sleep, impaired motor control
Explain what happens when the mother is Rh negative and the father is Rh positive.
When the fetus is Rh positive the mother's immune system may produce antibodies that will attack the fetus, miscarriage,defects or death
What are some environmental hazards that can endanger the fetus?
Radiation can cause gene mutation, microecephaly, mental retardation,leukemia. Mercury in fish-brain nervous system. PCB's vison
What can a lack of folic acid cause?
It is linked with neural tube defects such as spina bifida
What can result if the pregnant woman is under stress?
Producing adrenaline in response to fear restricts blood flow and deprives fetus of oxygen, premature, increases likelihood of drug use,irritability
What is the first stage of childbirth?
1st stage longest, causes the cervix to open to about 4 centimeters. Lasts about 12-24 hours
What is the second stage of childbirth?
Baby's head moves through the cervix and birth canal lasts about 1 1/2 hours ends with baby's birth
What is the third stage of childbirth?
Afterbirth-when the placenta, umbilical cord and other membranes are expelled. Shortest-3 minutes
What is anoxia?
Condition in which the fetus
has an insufficient supply of oxygen which can cause brain damage. Delivery complication
What is vernix caseosa?
The protective skin grease the baby is coated with at birth. Consists of fatty secretions and dead cells. protects against heat loss
What are the three kinds of drugs used for labor?
Analgesia-tranquilizers, barbituates,narcotics. Anesthesia-epidural block -doesn't cross placenta. Oxytocics-synthetic hormones to stimulate contractions
What is prepared childbirth?
Developed by Lamaze-employs the use of breathing techniques to control pushing as well as an AP course
Why might a c-section be performed?
Breech position (respiratory problems),crosswise position, head too large to pass, baby complications, vaginal bleeding
Define low birth weight infants.
Weigh less than 5.5 pounds. Very low weigh under 3 pounds. Extremely low weigh under 2 pounds
Define small for date infants.
Also called small for gestational age. Birth weight below normal when length of pregnancy considered
Define pre-term infants.
Those born 3 weeks or more before full term-35 or fewer weeks
What are some consequences of low birth weight?
School age may have learning disabilities, hyperactivity, breathing problems, problems with reading and math, behavioral problems
What is Kangaroo care?
holding a preterm infant so that there is skin to skin contact 2-3 hours.Helps stabilizebreathing,temperature,heartbeat, weight, cry less
What is the Apgar scale?
Assesses the health of the newborn 1-5 minutes after birth. Heart rate,respiration
muscle tone,color and reflex
What is the Brazelton Neonatal Behavioral Assessment Scale?
Test performed within 24-36 hours after birth to assess neurological development, reflexes and reactions to people
What are the Brazelton Neonatal Behavioral Assessment Scale 4 categories?
Physiological, motoric, state and interaction
What is involution?
The process by which the uterus returns to its prepregnancy size
What is postpartum depression?
Characteristic of women who have such strong feelings of sadness anxiety or despair that they have trouble coping with tasks. 10%
What are some signs a woman may need professional counseling about postpartum adaptation?
Excessive worrying, depression, extreme appetite changes, crying spells, inability to sleep
What is bonding?
The formation of a close connection between parents and their newborn in the period shortly after birth
What is the cephalocaudal pattern?
the earliest growth starts at the head with physcial growth in size,weight, features from top to foot
What is the proximodistal pattern?
The sequence in which growth starts at the center of the body and moves towards the extremities
What are neurons?
A nerve cell that handles information processing at the cellular level
What is the myelin sheath?
Layer of fat cells which encases axons and insulates nerve cells and helps nerve impulses travel
What is myelination?
The process of encasing axons with fat cells begins prenatally and continues after birth
How does dendritic development occur in infants?
Babies are born with many neurons-not many connections. As they grow synaptic connections between axons and dendrites increase
What are synapses?
Tiny gaps between neurons where chemical interactions connect axons and dendrites allowing information to pass from neuron to neuron
What is the function of the cerebral cortex?
Critical role in perception, language and thinking
How is the cerebral cortex organized?
Divided into 2 hemispheres, each hemisphere divided into 4 lobes: frontal, temporal, occipital and parietal
What is the function of the frontal lobe?
Voluntary movement and thinking
What is the function of the occipital lobe?
vision
What is the function of the temporal lobe?
hearing
What is the function of the parietal lobe?
Processing information about body sensations
What is lateralization?
Specialization of function in one hemisphere of the cerebral cortex or the other
What are some benefits of breastfeeding?
appropriate weight gain, lower childhood obesity, fewer allergies, prevention of ear infections, lower sids
What is marasmus?
Wasting away of body tissues in infants first year caused by severe protein-caloric deficiency
What is kwashiorkor?
Protein deficiency that causes the child's abdomen and feet to become swollen with water 1-3 years of age
What is the dynamic systems theory?
Thelen,the perspective on motor development that seeks to explain how motor behaviors are assembled for perceiving and acting
What did Gesell believe about motor skills development?
Infants and children develop these skills in a fixed order and within specific time frames
What is the sucking reflex?
A newborn's built in reaction to automatically suck an object placed in its mouth. Enables nourishment
before baby knows nipple
What is the rooting reflex?
Newborn's built-in reaction that occurs when the infants cheek is stroked or the side of the mouth is touched, baby turns head to touched side
What is the Moro reflex?
A neonatal startle response that occurs in reaction to a sudden intense noise or movement.Arches back throws head back flings out arms legs
What is the grasping reflex?
Neonatal reflex that occurs when something touches the infant's palms-infant responds by grasping tightly
What are gross motor skills?
Motor skills that involve large muscle activities such as walking
What are fine motor skills?
Motor skills that involve more finely tuned movements, such as finger dexterity
What is sensation?
The product of the interaction between information and the sensory receptors,ears,eyes,tongue, nose and skin
What is perception?
The interpretation of what is sensed
Explain the Gibsons' ecological view.
Perception functions to bring people in contact with their environment and to increase adaptation. Objects have affordances
What are affordances?
Opportunities for interaction offered by objects that are necessary to perform functional activites. pot-chef,baby(bang
What is the visual preference method?
Determines whether infants can distinguish one stimulus from another by measuring the length of attention they give to different stimuli
What is habituation?
Decreased responsiveness to a stimulus after repeated presentation of the stimulus
What is dishabituation?
Recovery of a habituated response after a change in stimulation
What is intermodal perception?
The ability to relate and integrate information from 2 or more sensory modalities, such as vison and hearing
What was Piaget's theory of infant development?
We build schemes actions or mental representations to organize knowledge. Assimilation and accomodation
What is the difference between assinilation and accomodation?
Assimilation is incorporating new information into existing knowledge(schemes)accomodation,adjusting knowledge to fit new info
What is organization?
Piaget's concept of grouping isolated behaviors into a higher order cognitive system,grouping items into categories
What is Equilibration?
A mechanism that Piaget proposed to explain how children shift from one stage to next. Cognitive conflict to balance of thought
What is the qualitative Piagetian view?
Not more information but achieving the different way of understanding the world makes one stage more advanced than the other
What is the sensorimotor stage?
The first of Piaget's stages, birth to 2, infant's build understanding of the world by linking sensory experiences to motor actions
What are simple reflexes?
1st sensorimotor substage, 1st month after birth. Means of coordinating sensation and action is through reflexive behaviors, rooting sucking
What are first habits and primary circular reactions?
Piaget's 2nd substage. 1-4 months. Infant's reflexes evolve into adaptive schemes that are more refined-behavior more than reflex
What are secondary circular reactions?
3rd substage.4-8months. Infant more object oriented focused on the world. Object permanence, imitation
What is coordination of secondary circular reactions?
4th. 8-12 Changes involving the coordination of schemes and intentionality. eye-hand, goal directed behavior
What is internalization of schemes?
6th substage. 18-24 months mental functioning shifts from sensorimotor to a symbolic plane. primitive symbols and mental representation pretend play
What are tertiary circular reactions, novelty and curiosity?
5th substage. 12-18 months infants become intrigued with properties that objects possess and by the multiplicity of things they can make happen
What is object permanence?
Understanding that objects and events continue to exist, even when they cannot be seen, heard or touched
What is object representation?
Do not need to have the object to prove existence. crucial for logic and critical thinking/abstract thinking
What is deferred imitation?
imitation that occurs after a time delay of hours or days
What is implicit memory?
Memory without conscious recollection, involves skills and routine procedures that are automatically performed
Whatis explicit memory?
Conscious memory of facts and experiences (don't touch-it's hot)
What is the developmental quotient (DQ)?
An overall developmental score that combines subscores in motor,language adaptive and personal-social domains-Gessell assessment
What is the Bayley Scales of Infant Development
three components: a mental scale, a motor scale, and an infant behavior profile
What is infinite generativity?
The ability to produce an endless number of meaningful sentences using a finite set of words and rules
What is phonology?
Sound system of language including the sounds that are used and how they may be combined-phoneme-smallest unit of sound (p)
What is morphology?
units of meaning involved in word formation. morpheme-minimal unit of meaning-cannot be smaller to convey
What is syntax?
The ways words are combined to form acceptable phrases and sentences
What is semantics?
The meaning of words and sentences
What is pragmatics?
The appropriate use of language in different contexts
What is telegraphic speech?
The use of short and precise words without grammatical markers such as articles, auxillary verbs and other connectives
What is aphasia?
A loss or impairment of language ability caused by brain damage
What is Broca's area?
An area of the brain's left frontal lobe next to the part that directs muscle movements that produce speech
What is Wernicke's area?
An area of the brain's left hemisphere involved in language comprehension
what is the language aquisition device?
LAD Chomsky's term that describes a biological endowment that enables the child to detect features and rules of language
What is child-directed speech?
Language spoken in a higher pitch than normal with simple words and sentences
What is recasting?
rephrasing something the child has said-perhaps turning it into a question
What is expanding?
Resating in a linguistically sophisticated form what the child says
What is labeling?
Identifying the names of objects
What is emotion?
Feeling, or affect, that occurs when a person is in a state or interaction that is important to them. Shown by behavior. 1st language
What are primary emotions?
6-8 months. Surprise, joy, anger, sadness, fear and disgust
What are self-conscious emotions?
Emotions that require cognition, empathy, jealousy, embarassment, pride shame guilt 2-3 years appears
What are self-conscious evaluative emotions?
children acquire and are able to use societal standards and rules to evaluate behavior
What is the basic cry?
A rhythmic pattern of a cry, a briefer silence, a shorter whistle-higher pitched than 1st cry, then a rest before next
What is the anger cry?
A cry similar to the basic cry, with more excess air forced through the vocal cords
What is the pain cry?
A sudden appearance of loud crying without preliminary moaning, followed by breath holding
What is the reflexive smile?
A smile that does not occur in response to external stimuli. 1st month usually during sleep
What is the social smile?
A smile in response to an external stimulus, typically is a face 2-3 months
What is stranger anxiety?
An infant's fear and wariness of strangers, second half of 1st year
What is separation anxiety?
An infant's distressed reaction when a caregiver leaves
What is social referencing?
"Reading" emotional cues in others to help determine how to act in a particular situation
What is temperament?
An individual's behavioral style and characteristic way of emotionally responding
How did psychiatrists Thomas and Chess group temperament?
3 basic types: easy child, difficult child and slow-to-warm-up child
Define an easy child.
A child who is generally in a positive mood, who quickly establishes regular routines in infancy, adapts easily
Define a difficult child.
A child who tends to react negatively and cry frequently, who engages in irregular daily routines, slow to adapt to new environ.
Define a slow-to-warm-up child.
A child who has a low activity level, is somewhat negative, and diplsys a low intensity of mood
What is Kagan's theory of behavioral inhibition?
he regarded shyness with strangers as inhibiton to the unfamiliar avoidance and displays traits of slow-to-warm-up
What are Rothbart and Bates classifications of temperament?
Positive affect/approach(unihibited), Negative affectivity(inhibited)High Effortful control(self-regulation)ability to keep arousal from getting too high can soothe self vs.low
What are some physiological characteristics associated with positive temperaments?
Brain's limbic system positive affect and approach, especially neural circuits linked to reward
What are some physiological characteristics associated with negative temperaments?
Amygdala plays a role in fear and inhibition, high and stable heart rate, high cortisol, high activity in frontal lobe low levels of neurotransmitter seratonin
What is goodness of fit?
Refers to the match between a childs temperament and the environmental demands with which the child must cope
What did Erikson say about personality development in infants?
1st year characterized by the trust-mistrust stage. learn to trust when cared for in a warm consistent manner
What did Mahler say about independence?
Argues that the child goes through a separation (from mom) and then an individualization process(dev of self)
What did Erikson say about personality development?
2nd stage. Autonomy vs Shame and Doubt. Pride in accomplishments
What was Freud's theory of attachment?
That infant's become attached to the person or object thst provides oral satisfaction
What was Erikson's theory of attachment?
Trust in infancy sets the stage for a lifelong expectation that the world will be good
What was Bowlby's ethological theory of attachment?
Newborn is biologically equipped to elicit attachment behavior, clinging, smiling,cooing
What are the 4 phases of Bowlby's attachment theory?
b-2m instinct direct attach. to human figures,2-7m attach focuses on 1 fig,7-24m, attch to reg. caregivers,24-become aware of other's feelings and adapt actions
What is the Strange Situation?
An observational measure of attachment that requires the infant to move through a series of introductions, separations and reunions with caregiver and stranger
What are securely attached babies?
Babies that use the caregiver as a secure base from which to explore the environment
What are insecure avoidant babies?
Babies that show insecurity by avoiding the caregiver
What are insecure resistant babies?
Babies that often cling to the caregiver, then resist her by fighting against the closeness, by kicking or pushing away
What are insecure disorganized babies?
Babies that show insecurity by being disorganized and disoriented
What is reciprocal socialization?
Socialization that is bidirectional; children socialize parents, just as parents socialize children
What is scaffolding?
Parents time interactions so that infants experience turn-taking with the parents-peek-a-boo