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51 Cards in this Set

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Why do young preschool aged children enjoy unstructured play so much?
- because they have just developed advanced gross motor
What are some effects of advancing fine motor coordination in preschool aged children?
- increased independence (feeding and clothing)
- Printing and drawing
- improved differentiation and integration
Which level of thinking are preschool aged children at?
- Preoperational thinking
What is Piagets belief on cognitive development?
- infants, children, adolescents create theories to try to understand events and objects around them
What two processes are involved with intellectual adaptation?
- Assimilation and accommodation
What are three shortcomings of preschoolers symbolic skills?
- Egocentrism
- Centration
- Appearance as reality
What does egocentrism refer to in reference to preoperational children?
- it refers to preoperational childrens inability to understand that other people differ in their ideas, convictions, emotions, and even physical placement
According to Piaget what does centration mean?
- it is a term for this narrowly focused thought that characterizes preoperational youngsters
Explain centration give an example.
- Centration refers to the narrow focus of a preoperational thinker that doesn't allow them to look at more than one part of a problem
- e.g. two of the same glass filled with juice pour one glass into a taller glass and youngster thinks that the taller glass has more fluid because they can't focus on more parts of the situation.
What does appearance as reality mean in reference to preoperational children?
- Children assume that an object really is what it appears to be e.g. a boy seeing milk with sunglasses would see it as brown, so they would believe that it is really brown
A child is unable to find something placed in a full size room, on a scale model representing the room. Why is this?
- the appearance as reality feature of preoperational thinkers
- they cannot understand that an object can be a symbol for something else, it is only what it is
Based on Piaget's theory how should a teacher, teach addition and subtraction?
- the teacher should provide the children with the material necessary to discover how they work they shouldn't simply describe these things to the student
- this is because cognitive growth occurs as children construct their own understanding of the world
Piaget's theory says that the best teaching experiences are slightly ahead of of the child's current level of thinking, why is this?
- because if the teaching is too far ahead of the students current cognitive level they will not profit because they must be able to interpret the experience with their current cognitive structures
Based on Piaget's theory what is the best way for a child to realize mistakes or inconsistencies in their thinking?
- Cognitive growth will be maximized if children discover these errors on their own, a teacher shouldn't correct an error directly but should encourage the child to look at a large number of these errors to discover what he or she is doing wrong
What is a naive theory?
- Children's early theories about how the world works
What are the different features of naive biology?
- inheritance
- movement
- growth
- internal parts
- healing
What would a 4 year olds naive theory of movement be?
- only animals can move themselves, inanimate movements can't
What would a 4 year olds naive theory of growth be?
- animals get bigger inanimate objects don't
What would a 4 year olds naive theory of internal parts be?
- different things are inside living things than inanimate things
What would a 4 year olds naive theory of inheritance be?
- only living things have offspring that resemble their parents
What would a 4 year olds naive theory of healing be?
- injured animate things heal by regrowth whereas inanimate things must be fixed by humans e.g. hair on their head grows back, hair on their dolls head must be replaced
What does the term mental hardware refer to?
- Neural structures that are built in and allow the mind to operate
What does the term mental software refer to?
- Mental programs that are the basis for performing particular tasks (e.g. skills, strategies)
What is the difference between recognition and recall?
- Recognition is the ability to recognize something previously encountered
- Recall is the ability to replicate something from ones own memory
What are the three types of memory Nelson distinguishes between?
- Generic memory
- Episodic Memory
- Autobiographical memory
What is Generic Memory?
- starts at about age 2
- production of script which is an outline of repeated events
What is Episodic memory?
- awareness that a specific event has occurred
- in young children will only last a few months
What is autobiographical memory?
- refers to peoples long-lasting memories of the significant events and experiences of their own lives
What three principles of counting had preschool aged children mastered by the age three?
- One to one principle
- Stable-order principle
- Cardinality principle
What is the cardinality principle?
- the last number name differs from the previous ones in a counting sequence by denoting the number of objects
-e.g. emphasis and repetition "1,2,3, Three!"
What is the one-to-one principle?
- there must be one number word for each object that is counted
What is the stable order principle?
- Number names must be counted in the same order
What is the Vygotsky's zone of proximal development?
- It is the difference between what a child can do alone and what he can do with assistance
What is Vygotsky's theory of scaffolding?
- a style of teaching in which teachers gauge the amount of assistance they offer to match the learner's needs
What is Vygotsky's theory of private speech?
- this self speech is designed to help a child regulate their own behaviour it eventually turns into inner speech (thinking)
What type of naming error is underextension?
- defining a word too narrowly e.g. car is only their blue minivan
What type of naming error is overextension?
- defining a word to broadly
- e.g. using the word car to refer to trucks or buses or the word doggie to refer to all four legged animals
- common between 1-3 years old
At about what time does telegraphic speech happen?
- 18months
What are some methods to encourage language growth?
- speaking
- naming
-grammatically sophisticated speech
- reading to children
- encouragement
What is overregularizations?
- It is because english is a highly irregular language, some english speaking children will apply rules that don't belong
- e.g. "mans" instead of men
What are the features of an autoritarian parent?
- combines high control with little warmth
- ends up being little give and take between parents and children
What are features of authoritative parents?
- combines a fair degree of control with being warm and responsive
- explain rules and encourage discussion
What are features of indulgent-permissive parents?
- warmth and caring but little parental control
- accept behaviour and punish infrequently
What are features of indifferent-uninvolved parents?
- provide neither warmth nor control
- provide for basic physical and emotional needs but little else
What is the negative reinforcement trap?
- When a parent gives in to bad behaviour and accidentally reinforces that behaviour
What are the negative side-effects of punishment?
- Risk of injury
- inducement of fear and hostility
- may foster aggression as a means to resolve disputes
- child only learns which response not to make
- punishment does not teach the child desirable responses
- may be reinforcing behavior
What constitutes effective punishment?
- It has to be immediate, consistent and informative
- It must be administered by a person with who the child has a warm and affectionate relationship
What are the major types of child abuse?
- Physical
- Sexual
- Psychological
- Neglect
What stage are the preschool years represented by in Erikson's theory?
- initiative versus guilt
What is the stage of initiative versus guilt?
- initiative is moderated by guilt as children realize that their initiative may place them in conflict with others.
What is theory of Mind?
- ideas about connections between thoughts, beliefs, intentions and behavior, an intuitive understanding between the link between mind and behaviour.