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76 Cards in this Set

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What is moral development directly related to in Kolberg's model?
Cognitive skills and social perspective taking
What is "code-switching"?
It is when bilingual speakers switch back and forth between languages during the course of a single conversation as a way to better express themselves.
True or False: Older adults exhibit more stability on personality traits than younger adults.
True
How does early malnutrition affect early brain development?
Cell size and structure in the brain are adversely affected. Specifically, dendritic, axonal and synaptic structures show diminished development.
What is a "sensitive period" during development?
Refers to an optimal period rather than a necessary period. For instance there is a sensitive period for dual language learning (6 months to 3 years).
According to Kohlberg what promotes moral development?
Peer interactions. Through interactions with peers children are able to integrate, interpret and judge what they are learning.
According to Levinson what happens in the midlife transition (ages 40-45)?
The midlife transition is marked by a shift in awareness from "time since birth" to "time left to live."
Compared to popular children, less popular children tend to be less
intelligent, physically attractive and cooperative than more popular children. Less popular children are just as friendly and sociable as popular children. The thought is that the characteristics that are most valued in the culture are most associated with popularity in childhood.
What did the research by Perry and Busey (1977) show about highly aggressive children?
That they show little remorse after hurting another child.
Regarding pregnancy prevention programs for adolescents what characterizes the most effective programs.
Most effective when they are community-based and they contribute to reduced pregnancy by increasing contraceptive use.
What are some social cognitive characteristics of aggressive children?
Tend to erroneously attribuite hostile intent the actions of other children

Have a fewer number of adaptive behavioral responses to situations

Expect less positive outcomes for competent or prosocial behaviors.
Research examining the temperament-parenting interaction and later aggressiveness has demonstrated.
Infants with difficult temprament are at greater risk for aggressiveness at age 3 if parents take and authoritarian parenting style
Transferrence in therapy as explained by attachment theory is due to?
Internal working models that are initially established in childhood with primary caregivers.
Children with inhibited temperament at age 3 will likely to be ___________ as adults.
At 21 years of age they tend to be more depressed and have low levels of social support.
What are some social cognitive characteristics of aggressive children?
Tend to erroneously attribuite hostile intent the actions of other children

Have a fewer number of adaptive behavioral responses to situations

Expect less positive outcomes for competent or prosocial behaviors.
Research examining the temperament-parenting interaction and later aggressiveness has demonstrated.
Infants with difficult temprament are at greater risk for aggressiveness at age 3 if parents take and authoritarian parenting style
Sadker and Sadker (1994) found what in their study of boys and girls in schools?
Boys call out in class more often and are more likely to be called on.

Boys get more pos and neg attention from teachers

Girls are more likely to experience sexual harrassment
What are some social cognitive characteristics of aggressive children?
Tend to erroneously attribuite hostile intent the actions of other children

Have a fewer number of adaptive behavioral responses to situations

Expect less positive outcomes for competent or prosocial behaviors.
Transferrence in therapy as explained by attachment theory is due to?
Internal working models that are initially established in childhood with primary caregivers.
Research examining the temperament-parenting interaction and later aggressiveness has demonstrated.
Infants with difficult temprament are at greater risk for aggressiveness at age 3 if parents take and authoritarian parenting style
Children with inhibited temperament at age 3 will likely to be ___________ as adults.
At 21 years of age they tend to be more depressed and have low levels of social support.
Transferrence in therapy as explained by attachment theory is due to?
Internal working models that are initially established in childhood with primary caregivers.
Sadker and Sadker (1994) found what in their study of boys and girls in schools?
Boys call out in class more often and are more likely to be called on.

Boys get more pos and neg attention from teachers

Girls are more likely to experience sexual harrassment
Children with inhibited temperament at age 3 will likely to be ___________ as adults.
At 21 years of age they tend to be more depressed and have low levels of social support.
Sadker and Sadker (1994) found what in their study of boys and girls in schools?
Boys call out in class more often and are more likely to be called on.

Boys get more pos and neg attention from teachers

Girls are more likely to experience sexual harrassment
In terms of development when does the onset of the ability of to recall (long-term memory) occur?
Between 6 and 12 months of age (shown behaviorally).
Before age two what characteristics can children distinquish people on?
Categorical distinctions between men and women and adults and children can be made before age 1. Children do not distinguish on race until preschool years.
What has the fear of death been associated with?
Fear of death is most associated with age. Middle aged people more fearful of death than young or old people.
What is prenatal exposure cocaine associated with?
Oversensitivity to environmental stimuli

Unusual patterns of motor development: excessive muscle tone

low birth weight and small head circumfence.
In the preoperational stage children demonstrate _______ and in the concrete operational stage children demonstrate __________
Centration:
Decentration
The microsystem in Brofenbrenner's model stands for?
Microsystem includes aspects of the child's environment that affect him directly
The mesosystem in Brofenbrenner's model stands for?
Mesosystem: the interactions between the components of the microsystem (home and school)
The exosystem in the Brofenbrenner's model stands for?
factors that indirectly affect a child (social systemts and parent workplaces).
Who coined the term of the adolescent identity crisis?
Erikson coined the term. You would expect this in the identity vs identity confusion stage.
Authoritative parenting is characterized by?
high degree of warmth, structure and expectations.
Underextension
An speaking error that involves applying a term too narrowly.
Overextension
A developmental speaking error that involves gerneralizing and applying a word to a wide range of objects or events than is correct.
Overregularization
Overextension of grammatical rules to the words that are exceptions
Expansion
Information that adults give children to guide them in appropriate language use.
Phoneme
smallest unit of sound.
What are the effects of maternal employment according Harvey's Reanalysis of the 1994 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth? Particularly in the first 3 yrs of life.
No effects on compliance or self-esteem.

minor short term effects on academic acheivement
How do sibling relationships change with age? Especially in reference to middle childhood.
As sibling approach middle childhood their relationships tend to become more egalitarian according to a study by Buhrmester and Furman.
What is Ferberizing or Ferber's method to treat sleeping difficulties in infants.
Ferber suggested a "progressive waiting" method.

Put the child to bed.
If the child cries then the parent returns, reassures the child and pats the child on the back but does not pick the child up.

If the child cries again the parent waits longer before returning.

The wait period is continually increased every night.
What is the leading cause of death in the US for all age groups?
Heart disease
What is the leading cause of death for thos indivudals from birth to age 34?
Unintentional injury
What is the relationship between prosocial behaviors and family characteristics?
No consistent relationships have been found between family characteristics and prosocial behavior.
Are immersion or bilingual programs best for children that are in the language minority?
According to Thomas and Collier's longitudingal study suggests that bilingual programs are best for the long term achievement of children of a language minority
What factor serves as a protective factor for children at high risk for antisocial behavior?
Higher IQ
What is increased maternal anxiety associated with among children?
Increased crying in newborns.
Among adolescents, what is problem drug use linked with?
The adolescent experiencing a sense of alineation.
Characteristics of a securely attached infant when parents come into and leave the room?
verbally and visually upset when a parent leaves the room, are not comforted by a stranger, when the parent returns they seek contact with them but then return to play.
What are the effects of maternal employment on adolescents?
Middle- and upper-middle class boys are negatively affected by maternal employment as reflected by lower grades and academic achievememt.
When do children start to demonstrate, the "A-not-B error"?
Between 8 and 12 months of age children tend to demonstrate the "a-not-b error."

At 8 months of age children provide evidence that they know that objects exist when they are out of view. The a-not-b error: The child searches for a hidden object but look for it in the last place they saw it.
Define "horizontal decalage"
the gradual development that occurs within a stage of development. Mastery of operations during the concrete operational stage.
Manifests inconsistently in exhibiting a particular type of ability.
What two factors contribute to the development of conscience according to Kochanska?
Kochanska 1997 different socialization mechanisms may promote conscience development in children with different tempermental individualities. Temperament MEDIATES the relationship between attachment and the development of consciouness. In fearless toddlers conscience development depends on the more secure mother-child attachment and maternal responsiveness.
Describe the "Zone of proximal development"
According to Vygotsky, symbolic play provides a zone of proximal development that enables a child to practive behaviors in a situation that requires less precision and accuracty than would be required in reality.

Symbolic play refers to play in which one object represents another.
What is Flavell known for?
Flavell known for work on children’s ability to distinguishing between appearance and reality.
When do children start showing preferences for their own racial group? What about their own gender?
Clark, Hocevar, & Dembo, 1980: It is not until 4 yrs of age that most children express more favorable attitudes toward members of their own ethnic or racial group than towards members of other groups.

Children start showing a preference for their own gender around age 5.
What has research found regarding children adopted between 4-6 years of age?
According to Hodges and Tizard (1989) they can develop bonds with adoptive parents. However, children adopted between 4-6 years of age also exhibit higher rates of emotional and social problems and exhibit and excessive need for adult attention and excessive friendliness toward unfamiliar adults.
Name Rutters indicators for psychopathology.
low SES, marital discord, large family size, overcrowding, paternal criminality, maternal psychiatric disorder, and being placed in foster care
What do information processing theorists believe about cognition development during adolescence?
Increases in abstract reasoning in adolescence are due to increases in the underlying capacities to attend to information and hold information in memory.
Name Ainsworth's 4 attachment patterns
Secure
Insecure/avoidant
Insecure/Ambivalent
Disorganized/Disoriented
Among juvenile offenders what are predictors of re-offense?
First contact with the law: -.341

Length of first incarceration: .187

Commencement of first offense and reoffense: -.346
What is emotional contagion and when do infants first display it?
It is the tendency of babies to cry at the sound of someone else crying. This is exhibited in the first few weeks of life.
The relationship between authoritative parenting and scholastic achievment is moderated by?
Steinberg and colleagues
(1992) found that authoritative parenting style is predictive of successful school performance in adolescence.

Ethnicity:

The link between authoritative parenting and academic success is less for African American adolescents bc they are more influenced by their peers.
What substance have the most number of teens tried according to a 1992 NIDA survey?
Alcohol
% of teens that have tried: 87.5 %Alcohol,
61.8 %nicotine,
32.6% pot
Describe: Ainsworth's Secure attachment
Secure: exhibit mild distress when mom leaves and actively seeks contact with her when she returns. Unlikely to be comforted by a stranger. (Mothers emotionally sensitive and responsive to babies cues)
Describe: Insecure (Anxious)/avoidant attachment
Anxious/avoidant: typically show little distress in response to moms departure, ignore her when she returns and are often more friendly to a stranger than to mother. (Mothers are impatient and unresponsive or are overstimulating
Describe: Insecure (anxious)/ambivalent:
Insecure (anxious)/ambivalent: Become very upset when mom leaves and but is ambivalent when she returns and may even resist attempts at physical contact. They are difficult to calm even when mother returns.(Mothers are often moody and inconsistent in their caregiving.
Describe: Disorganized/Disoriented
Disorganized/Disoriented: Children exhibit fear of their caregivers, confused facial expression and other disorganized bx. 80% of children that have been mistreated by their caregivers exhibit this pattern.
What is the relationship between maternal socialization practices and children's internalization of conscience mediated by?
Child temperment, esp fearful/anxious.
Kochanaska found the relationship between maternal parenting style and the children’s internalization of conscience is mediated by the child’s temperament. Impact of gentle discipline is dependent on the temperament of the child and is most effective for children who are relatively fearful and anxious.
When approaching a young child how should you act to minimize stranger anxiety?
Approach slowly, quietly (but not too quiet), be playful and do not attempt to pick the child up.
Characterize Authoritative parenting style
moderate degree of control with warmth and responsiveness
What is the relationship between authoriative parenting style and socal and academic functioning?
It is associated with beneficial effects on social development and academic achievement.
What effects does TV viewing have on children ?
1. Children from lower SES groups whatch more TV than kids fomr high SES groups.
2. Most children watch programs developed for adult or family audiences.
3. The amont of TV watching time peaks in adolescence.

4. Children do not understand that the purpose of tv commercials is to make you buy something until the 2 or 3rd grade.
What is the most influential risk factor for drug abuse in adolescence?
Use of alcohol, tobacco, and/or marijuana is the best predictor of later illicit drug use or drug abuse in adolescence.