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28 Cards in this Set

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Critical vs Sensitive Period
critical = specific, predetermined period of time during bio maturtion; sensitive to environment

sensitive = longer and moreflexible; not as closely tied to chrono age or maturational stage
Polygenic traits

single genes
height, weight, IQ

brown eyes, dark hair, farsightedness

observed characteristics; heredity and environment

genetic inheritance
Stages of Prenatal Development
Germinal Stage = 1st 2 weeks; zygote

Embryonic stage = 3-8th week

Fetal stage = 9th week until birth
Genetic Birth Defects
result of pair of recessive genes or chromosomal abnormality

Recessive gene d/o = Tay Sachs, PKU

Chromosomal Abnormalities = sex linked or autosomal; Down Syndrome (trisomy 21) most common

worst in which stage?

subs that cross placental barrier and cause defects in embryo or fetus

worst in embryonic stage

Alcohol, Narcotics, Cocaine, Nicotine, Lead
Effects of alcohol on fetus
FAS; facial abnormalities, retarded growth, hyperactive;

Effects of Nicotine on fetus
born adicted and show tremors, rapid breathing, sz; high risk for low birth weight; SIDS
Effects of Cocaine on fetus
increase risk of stilborn or spontaneous abortion; risk for SIDS; sz; low weight; tremors; exaqggerated startle; high pitched cry; feeding probs;

cog Bx probs into early school years
Nicotine effects on fetus
placental abnormalities; fetal death and stillborn; high risk for low weight; SIDS
Lead Effects on fetus
low birthweight; MR
Effects of Rubella on fetus
high risk for heart defects, blindness, deafness, MR
HIV/AIDS effects on fetus
reduced transmission with AZT; 35-60% transmitted; small babies; signs of virus in 1st year; immune probs; 1/3 live past 8
Malnutrition effects on fetus
miscarriage, stillbirth, low weight, MR;

in 3rd trimester = bad on dev of brain
Premature vs Small for Gestational Age
born before 37 weeks = premature

weight below 10th percentile = SGA
-worse than premature (risk for asphyxia during birth, resp disease, hypoglycemia)
Predictors of child psychopathology
marital discord
low SES
overcrowding/large family
parental criminality
maternal psychopathology
placement of child outside of home
Newborn Vision
at birth- can see at 20ft what we see at 200ft; prefer human faces
1 month - prefer moms face
2 motnhs - ltd color;
4-6 months - some depth perception
6 months - close to adults
Newborn Audition
hear sounds in uterus during last months of dev;
localization soon after birth
3 months - knows differnt voices; prefers moms voice
Newborn Taste and Smell
responsive to different tastes and odors
facial diff with sweet and nonsweet
prefer sweet
8-10 days - prefer smell of moms milk
Reflexes in Newborn
Babinski - toes fan out and upward when tickled
Rooting - turn head towards touch of cheek
Moro (startle) - flings legs and arms out then to body when loud noise
Stepping - makes coordinated walking mvmts when held upright
Brain Development
dev rapidly prenataly

at birth - 25% of adult weight
grows fast following birth

age 2 - 80% of adult weight; form glial cells (myelinization of nerve fibers)

age 16 - full weight
Cerebral Cortex
responsible for higher level cognitive functions;

lang is completely undev at birth

frontal cortex matures through adulthood
Brain Lateralization
hand preference - 4 YOA

age 30 - brain starts to sjrink due to loss of neurons

shrinks fast after 60

age 90 - 20% smaller than was at 30

1-3 months

4-6 months
1-3 = raise chin from ground;
turn head
by 3rd month - play with hands and fingers; bring things to mouth

4-6 = rolls from front to back;
at 5 - sits on lap; reach for grasps
at 6 - sit alone and stands with help
5-9 - teeth

7-9 months

10-12 months
7-9 = good coordination;
8-9 - sits alone and crawls
pull self to stand with furniture

10-12 = stands alone; walk with help
12 - first steps

13-15 months

16-24 months

25-36 months
13-15 = walks alone
15 - creeps up stairs; uses cups; scribbles

16-24 =
18 - runs clumsily, up stairs, spoons
24 - stairs alone; kicks ball; turns book

25-36 =
30 - jumps; coordination
36 - rides tricycle, dresses, toilet trained
Physical Changes in Old Age

Strength, coordination, Rreaction time
after 65, vision changes with reading, driving, loss of near vision

prior to 75, no changes in hearing; 75-79 50% have deficits; decreased ability to hear high freq sounds

loss of taste/smell in both (more M)

Strength declines; Bx slowing
Piaget's Stages of Cognitive Development
knowledge from bio and environment

Sensorimotor Stage
Concrete Ooperational
Formal Operational

sense a motor, get preoperational, pour the concrete, with lots of