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28 Cards in this Set

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Critical vs Sensitive Period
critical = specific, predetermined period of time during bio maturtion; sensitive to environment

sensitive = longer and moreflexible; not as closely tied to chrono age or maturational stage
Polygenic traits




single genes
height, weight, IQ




brown eyes, dark hair, farsightedness
Phenotype



Genotype
observed characteristics; heredity and environment



genetic inheritance
Stages of Prenatal Development
Germinal Stage = 1st 2 weeks; zygote

Embryonic stage = 3-8th week

Fetal stage = 9th week until birth
Genetic Birth Defects
result of pair of recessive genes or chromosomal abnormality

Recessive gene d/o = Tay Sachs, PKU

Chromosomal Abnormalities = sex linked or autosomal; Down Syndrome (trisomy 21) most common
Teratogens

worst in which stage?

examples:
subs that cross placental barrier and cause defects in embryo or fetus

worst in embryonic stage

Alcohol, Narcotics, Cocaine, Nicotine, Lead
Effects of alcohol on fetus
FAS; facial abnormalities, retarded growth, hyperactive;

irreversible
Effects of Nicotine on fetus
born adicted and show tremors, rapid breathing, sz; high risk for low birth weight; SIDS
Effects of Cocaine on fetus
increase risk of stilborn or spontaneous abortion; risk for SIDS; sz; low weight; tremors; exaqggerated startle; high pitched cry; feeding probs;

cog Bx probs into early school years
Nicotine effects on fetus
placental abnormalities; fetal death and stillborn; high risk for low weight; SIDS
Lead Effects on fetus
low birthweight; MR
Effects of Rubella on fetus
high risk for heart defects, blindness, deafness, MR
HIV/AIDS effects on fetus
reduced transmission with AZT; 35-60% transmitted; small babies; signs of virus in 1st year; immune probs; 1/3 live past 8
Malnutrition effects on fetus
miscarriage, stillbirth, low weight, MR;

in 3rd trimester = bad on dev of brain
Premature vs Small for Gestational Age
born before 37 weeks = premature

weight below 10th percentile = SGA
-worse than premature (risk for asphyxia during birth, resp disease, hypoglycemia)
Predictors of child psychopathology
marital discord
low SES
overcrowding/large family
parental criminality
maternal psychopathology
placement of child outside of home
Newborn Vision
at birth- can see at 20ft what we see at 200ft; prefer human faces
1 month - prefer moms face
2 motnhs - ltd color;
4-6 months - some depth perception
6 months - close to adults
Newborn Audition
hear sounds in uterus during last months of dev;
localization soon after birth
3 months - knows differnt voices; prefers moms voice
Newborn Taste and Smell
responsive to different tastes and odors
facial diff with sweet and nonsweet
prefer sweet
8-10 days - prefer smell of moms milk
Reflexes in Newborn
unlearned;
Babinski - toes fan out and upward when tickled
Rooting - turn head towards touch of cheek
Moro (startle) - flings legs and arms out then to body when loud noise
Stepping - makes coordinated walking mvmts when held upright
Brain Development
dev rapidly prenataly

at birth - 25% of adult weight
grows fast following birth

age 2 - 80% of adult weight; form glial cells (myelinization of nerve fibers)

age 16 - full weight
Cerebral Cortex
responsible for higher level cognitive functions;

lang is completely undev at birth

frontal cortex matures through adulthood
Brain Lateralization
hand preference - 4 YOA

age 30 - brain starts to sjrink due to loss of neurons

shrinks fast after 60

age 90 - 20% smaller than was at 30
Milestones

1-3 months



4-6 months
1-3 = raise chin from ground;
turn head
by 3rd month - play with hands and fingers; bring things to mouth

4-6 = rolls from front to back;
at 5 - sits on lap; reach for grasps
at 6 - sit alone and stands with help
5-9 - teeth
Milestones

7-9 months


10-12 months
7-9 = good coordination;
8-9 - sits alone and crawls
pull self to stand with furniture

10-12 = stands alone; walk with help
12 - first steps
Milestones

13-15 months


16-24 months


25-36 months
13-15 = walks alone
15 - creeps up stairs; uses cups; scribbles

16-24 =
18 - runs clumsily, up stairs, spoons
24 - stairs alone; kicks ball; turns book

25-36 =
30 - jumps; coordination
36 - rides tricycle, dresses, toilet trained
Physical Changes in Old Age

Vision
Hearing
Taste/Smell
Strength, coordination, Rreaction time
after 65, vision changes with reading, driving, loss of near vision

prior to 75, no changes in hearing; 75-79 50% have deficits; decreased ability to hear high freq sounds

loss of taste/smell in both (more M)

Strength declines; Bx slowing
Piaget's Stages of Cognitive Development
knowledge from bio and environment

Sensorimotor Stage
Preoperational
Concrete Ooperational
Formal Operational
SPCF:

sense a motor, get preoperational, pour the concrete, with lots of
formal-ity.