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51 Cards in this Set

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PIAGET:SENSORIMOTOR STAGE

SUBSTAGE 1 & 2
AS A CHILD, LEARNING IS THROUGH OUR SENSES; USING CIRCULAR REACTIONS/CAUSALITY.

SUBSTAGE 1 REFLEXIVE SCHEMAS
SUBSTAGE 2 PRIMARY CIRCULAR REACTIONS

-USE REFLEXES & BEGIN TO CONTROL THEM
-ATTEMPT TO REPEAT PLEASURABLE EVENTS INVOLVING BODY (eg thumbsucking)

PIAGET:SENSORIMOTOR STAGE
SUBSTAGE 1 & 2
PIAGET, SENSORIMOTOR STAGE:

SUBSTAGE 3 & 4
SUBSTAGE 3: SECONDARY CIRCULAR REACTIONS

SUBSTAGE 4: COORDINATED SECONDARY CIRCULAR REACTIONS

~REPRODUCE PLEASURE EVENTS INVOLVING PEOPLE/OBJECTS
~COMBINE W/ SUBSTAGE 3 W/ NEW, COMPLEX ACTION SEQUENCES
~OBJECT PERMANENCE (8MONTHS)
~UNDERSTAND CAUSALITY (10MONTHS)

PIAGET, SENSORIMOTOR STAGE:
SUBSTAGE 3 &4
PIAGET, SENSORIMOTOR STAGE:

SUBSTAGE 5
~VARIES ACTION/SEQUENCE TO DISCOVER CONSEQUENCES OF DOING SO.

~12 to 18 months

PIAGET, SENSORIMOTOR STAGE:
SUBSTAGE 5
PIAGET, SENSORIMOTOR STAGE:

SUBSTAGE 6
-SYMBOLIC (REPRESENTATIONAL) THOUGHT-THINK ABOUT EVENTS/ANTICIPATE CONSEQUENCES

-18-24 MONTHS

PIAGET, SENSORIMOTOR STAGE:
SUBSTAGE 6
WHAT ARE THE BENEFITS OF COMPUTER ASSISTED INSTRUCTION IN THE CLASSROOM
~> social interactions among children
~it leads to improvements on standardized achievement tests
~it < students' phobias toward computers
~ benefit low-ability students more because it provides them with an opportunity for individualized instruction, reduces competition with and judgment of higher-ability peers, etc.

BENEFITS OF COMPUTER ASSISTED INSTRUCTION IN THE CLASSROOM
PIAGET'S SENSORIMOTOR (SOS) 0-2
~(S)ENSORY OBSERVATION

~(O)BJECT PERMANENCE

~(S)YMBOLIC REPRESENTATION

SENSORIMOTOR STAGE
PIAGET'S PREOPERATIONAL (PACEII) 2-7
~(P)HENOMENALISTIC CAUSALITY

~(A)NIMISM

~(C)ENTRATION

~(E)GOCENTRIC

~(I)LLOGICAL

~(I)RREVERSIBILITY

PIAGET'S PREOPERATIONAL STAGE
PIAGET'S CONCRETE OPERATIONAL (CMOS) 7-11
~(C)ONSERVATION

~(M)ORE LOGIC

~(O)PERATES ON OBJECTS

~(S)ERIATION

(ALSO, it is during this time where the development of a "REFLECTIVE SELF" takes place. The child is able to realize there are consequences to his or her actions and how others will respond to those actions.)

CONCRETE OPERATIONAL STAGE
PIAGET'S FORMAL OPERATIONAL (AM) 11+
~(A)BSTRACT THOUGHT

~(M)ETACOGNITION

~EGOCENTRISM (eg 'Personal Fable' & 'Imaginary Audience')

~RELATIVISM

~HYPOTHETICAL

the construction of unit concepts and the ability to "reason about reasoning"

PIAGET'S FORMAL OPERATIONAL STAGE
EMOTIONAL CONTAGION
-Emotional contagion refers to the tendency of babies to cry at the sound of another infant's cries. This behavior is considered by experts to be the first sign of empathy.

-Sometimes occurs during the 1st week of life.

EMOTIONAL CONTAGION
Jerome Kagan has related the basic temperament quality of inhibition (degree of approach or withdrawal in new situations) to:
-CNS reactivity

-Infants with a high degree of BEHAVIORAL INHIBITION also exhibit high CNS activity (especially in the amygdala and hypothalamus) in new situations

-Kagan argues that temperament is heavily influenced by genetics, especially the aspect of temperament referred to as "reactivity."

JEROME KAGAN AND BASIC TEMPERAMENT
GOTTMAN & COLLEAGUES RESEARCH ON RISK FACTORS OF DIVORCE:
RISK FACTORS FOR EARLY DIVORCE IN THE FIRST 7 YEARS OF MARRIAGE

-Criticism
-Defensiveness
-Contempt

LATER DIVORCE:

-Holding back + and - affect

GOTTMAN & COLLEAGUES RESEARCH ON RISK FACTORS OF DIVORCE
WHAT ARE THE PERCEPTIONS OF AGGRESSIVE CHILDREN?
~Focus on cues at the END of a social interaction (a recency effect).

~are more likely to interpret the behaviors of peers as INTENTIONALLY HOSTILE, especially when those behaviors are ambiguous

~have access to fewer potential responses and the responses they access are typically more aggressive and less prosocial in nature

~More likely than their peers to believe that aggressive behavior will have + outcomes

AGGRESSIVE CHILDREN
REJECTED VS. NEGLECTED CHILDREN: PEER STATUS AND CHANGING SCHOOLS
NO effect on the peer status of REJECTED children but may have BENEFICIAL effects on the peer status of NEGLECTED children

REJECTED VS. NEGLECTED CHILDREN
KOHLBERG AND MORAL DEVELOPMENT
He proposed that there is a greater correspondence between moral judgment and action at the HIGHER stages of moral development because the higher stages employ more stable and generalizable standards.

KOHLBERG AND MORAL DEVELOPMENT
SPATIAL PERCEPTION OF 2 MONTH OLD INFANTS
SUPRISINGLY, INFANTS AT THIS AGE ARE NOT AFRAID OF THE DEEP SIDE OF A CLIFF AS MUCH AS THE SHALLOW SIDE OF A CLIFF BECAUSE THEY DON'T HAVE A FEAR OF HEIGHTS.

SPATIAL PERCEPTION OF 2 MONTH OLD INFANTS
EFFECTS OF NORMAL AGING ON MEMORY
EPISODIC (AUTOBIOGRAPHICAL) MEMORIES SHOW MORE DECLINES THAN SEMANTIC (FACT) MEMORIES OR PROCEDURAL (SKILL) MEMORIES.

EFFECTS OF NORMAL AGING
NORMAL AGE RELATED COGNITIVE DECLINE
VERBAL ABILITY IS RELATIVELY IMMUNE TO THE EFFECTS OF NORMAL AGING AND DON’T REALLY DECLINE UNTIL THE LATE 70s OR EARLY 80S.

NORMAL AGE RELATED COGNITIVE DECLINE
Kochanska’s (1997) RESEARCH ON THE DEVELOPMENT OF CONSCIOUS:
DEPENDS ON THE CHILD'S LEVEL OF FEARFULNESS.


EG. FEARFUL TODDLERS = DEVELOP CONSCIENCE WHEN MOTHER USES “GENTLE DISCIPLINE.” FEARLESS TODDLERS = DEVELOPMENT CONSCIENCE CONTINGENT ON MOTHER-CHILD ATTACHMENT AND MATERNAL RESPONSIVENESS.

KOCHANSKA'S RESEARCH ON THE DEV OF CONSCIOUS
CHILDREN AND DAYCARE:
CHILDREN WHO ATTEND DAYCARE:
-HIGHER DEGREE OF EXTERNALIZING BEHAVIORS AND CONFLICTS WITH ADULTS
(EVEN WHEN QUALITY, TYPE, & STABILITY OF THE DAYCARE IS CONTROLLED. THESE BEHAVIORS ARE IN THE NORMAL RANGE.)

CHILDREN AND DAYCARE
BEM’S GENDER SCHEMA THEORY:
A SOCIAL-COGNITIVE APPROACH BECAUSE IT EMPHASIZES BOTH SOCIAL (ESPECIALLY SOCIOCULTURAL) FACTORS AND COGNITIVE PROCESSES. CHILDREN DEVELOP SCHEMAS ABOUT WHAT IS EXPECTED OF THEM AS GIRLS OR BOYS AND THEN APPLY THOSE SCHEMAS TO THEIR OWN BEHAVIORS.

BEM'S GENDER SCHEMA THEORY
According to D. LEVINSON when is the MID-LIFE CRISIS?
According to D. Levinson, changes that occur during the "MID-LIFE CRISIS" (typically between the ages of 40 and 45) are often tied to a mental change in the perception of time.

THE MID-LIFE CRISES ACCORDING TO D. LEVINSON
AUTHORITATIVE PARENTING
MODIFIED BY ETHNICITY OR CULTURE.

+ for HISPANIC AND WHITE FAMILIES, THIS PARENTING STYLE IS GOOD FOR EDUCATIONAL SUCESS

- for ASIAN AND AFRICAN-AMERICAN FAMILIES

AUTHORITATIVE PARENTING
What are the EFFECTS OF COCAINE EXPOSURE DURING IN UTERO?
INSENSITIVITY TO TACTILE, VISUAL, AND AUDITORY STIMULATION

EFFECTS OF COCAINE EXPOSURE DURING IN UTERO
PARENTAL EMPLOYMENT DURING A CHILD 1ST THREE YEARS OF LIFE RESULTS IN
SMALL NEGATIVE IMPACT ON COGNITIVE FUNCTIONING

NO IMPACT ON BEHAVIORAL OR EMOTIONAL DEVELOPMENT

EFFECTS OF PARENTAL EMPLOYMENT DURING THE 1ST 3 YEARS OF LIFE
What is the GOODNESS OF FIT MODEL?
Refers to the ADJUSTMENT IN CHILDREN and how it is related to the DEGREE OF CONGRUENCE bet. a child's BASIC TEMPERMENT and his/her PARENT'S CAREGIVING

What is the Goodness of Fit Model?
What is TURNER SYNDROME?
Females:

-XO chromosome pattern

(i.e., 1 X chromosome with NO other functioning SEX chromosome).

TURNER SYNDROME
What is CUSHING SYNDROME due to?
MALFUNCTIONING ADRENAL CORTEX

CAUSE OF CUSHING SYNDROME
What is the FRAGILE X SYNDROME?
-PHYSICAL and BEHAVIORAL ABNORMALITIES

-HEREDITARY

-RESULTS IN MR and other cognitive impairments

FRAGILE X SYNDROME
What is the MULLERIAN SYNDROME?
-CONGENTIAL DISORDER

-DUE TO A LACK OF ANTI-MULLERIAN HORMONE or RECEPTORS for this hormone.

MULLERIAN SYNDROME
AISNWORTH'S "STRANGE SITUATION": RESISTENT/AMBIVALENT PATTERN
~VERY DISTURBED WHEN LEFT ALONE WITH A STRANGER

~AMBIVALENT WHEN SHE RETURNS OR HITS OR PUSH HER WHEN SHE RETURNS

AINSWORTH RESISTENT/AMBIVALENT PATTERN
AINSWORTH'S "STRANGE SITUATION": "AVOIDANT PATTERN"
~VERY LITTLE DISTRESS WHEN MOTHER LEAVES

~AVOIDS OR IGNORES HER WHEN SHE RETURNS

AINSWORTH AVOIDANT PATTERN
What are the LEVELS OF PROCESSING MODEL?
-PHONETIC
-ACOUSTIC
-SEMANTIC
-SELF-REFERENCING
ASSIMILATION
WE TRY TO UNDERSTAND NEW INFORMATION AND TRY TO INCORPORATE IT WITH WHAT WE KNOW

ASSIMILATION
ACCOMADATION
WE LEARN THAT NEW INFORMATION IS DIFFERENT AND IT IS ADDED INTO OUR CURRENT INFO OR KNOWLEDGE AS SOMETHING "NEW"

ACCOMADATION
PRENATAL DEVELOPMENT (GEF)
1. GERMINAL STAGE: 1ST 2 WEEKS, THE FERTILIZED OVUM IS CALLED A ZYGOTE

2. EMBRYONIC STAGE: 3RD WEEK THROUGH 8TH WEEK

3. FETAL STAGE: 9TH WEEK TO BIRTH
SMALL FOR GESTATIONAL AGE INFANTS
~BELOW 10TH PERCENTILE

~MORE SERIOUS FOR PREMATURE BABIES

~RISK: ASPHYXIA DURING BIRTH, RESPIRATORY DISEASE, HYPOGLYCEMIA, AND OTHER PROBLEMS
WHAT WERE RUTTERS RISK FACTORS FOR CHILD PSYCHOPATHOLOGY?
~MARITAL DISCORD

~LOW SES

~OVER CROWDING OR LARGE FAMILY SIZE

~PARENTAL CRIMINALITY

~MATERNAL PSYCHOPATHOLOGY

~PLACEMENT OUTSIDE THE HOME (eg RTC)
WHAT ARE THE RECESSIVE GENE PROBLEMS?
~SICKLE-CELL ANEMIA

~TAY-SACHS DISEASE

~CYSTIC FIBROSIS

~PHENYLALINE
WHAT ARE THE SEX LINKED OR CHROMOSOMAL ABNORMALITIES?
~TURNER'S

~KLINEFELTER'S

~FRAGILE X SYNDROME
PERCEPTION IN THE NEWBORN
~1 TO 4 MONTHS: SUCKING

~12 WEEKS AND OLDER: REACHING

~5.5 TO 12 MONTHS: HEAD TURNING

~ANY AGE: HEART RATE

S-R-T (-HEART RATE)
TERMS FROM VYGOTSKY
~SOCIOCULTURAL THEORY: COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT IS 1ST INTERPERSONAL AND THEN INTRAPERSONAL

~ZONE OF PROXIMAL DEVELOPMENT (also SCAFFOLDING)
BRONFENBRENNER'S MODEL
MMEM

~(M)ICRO

~(M)ESO

~(E)XO

~(M)ACRO
WHAT IS THE NATIVIST VIEW OF LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT?
~WE DEVELOP LANGUAGE FROM BIOLOGICAL MECHANISMS

~EXPOSURE TO ENVIRONMENT WILL LEAD TO LEARNING OF LANGUAGE
WHAT IS THE INTERACTIONIST APPROACH TO LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT?
~LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT IS DUE TO BIOLOGICAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS
KHOLBERG'S IDENTITY DEVELOPMENT MODEL
I-S-C

~GENDER (I)DENTITY

~GENDER (S)TABILITY

~GENDER (C)ONSTANCY
MARICA'S 4 IDENTITY STATUS'
~IDENTITY DIFFUSION: NO IDENTITY

~IDENTITY FORECLOSURE: START TO NOTICE

~IDENTITY MORATORIUM: IDENTITY CRISIS, EXPLORATION

~IDENTITY ACHIEVEMENT: COMMITTMENT TO AN IDENTITY
KUBLER-ROSS STAGES OF LOSS
D-A-B-D-A

~(D)ENIAL AND ISOLATION

~(A)NGER

~(B)ARGINING

~(D)EPRESSION

~(A)CCEPTANCE
PIAGET'S THEORY OF MORAL DEVELOPMENT
P-H-A

~PREMORAL STAGE: NO CONCERN FOR RULES

~HETERONOMOUS MORALITY STAGE: RULES AND CONSEQUENCES OF RULES ARE IMPORTANT

~AUTONOMOUS MORALITY STAGE: RULES ARE ARBITRARY AND ALTERABLE, right vs. wrong
KOHLBERG'S THEORY OF MORAL DEVELOPMENT
P-C-P

~PRECONVENTINAL MORALITY: AVOID PUNISHMENT ("INSTRUMENTAL HEDONISM")

~CONVENTIONAL MORALITY: GOOD BOY/GOOD GIRL, LAW AND ORDER

~POST-CONVENTIONLA MORALITY: LAWS, ADULTHOOD
ERIKSON'S STAGES OF PSYCHOSOCIAL DEVELOPMENT
~Basic Trust vs Mistrust – sense of trust and optimism

~Autonomy vs Shame and Doubt – sense of self develops via positive interactions

~Initiative vs Guilt – ability to set goals and carry out plans without infringing on rights of others

~Industry vs Inferiority – mastering social and academic skills

~Identity vs Role Confusion – sense of personal identity and direction for future

~Intimacy vs Isolation – establish bonds of love and friendship; avoid self-absorption and isolation

~Generativity vs Stagnation – commitment to next generations

~Integrity vs Despair – wisdom and sense of integrity; come to grips with one’s limitations and mortality