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95 Cards in this Set

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What two contexts does development always occur in?
social
cultural
Four developmental domains:
physical
cognitive (including language)
personality
sociocultural
Although domains are convenient concepts, development is not compartmentalized; it is ____
holistic
When did the scientific study of human development first begin?
Beginning of 20th century
Being scientific means being ______ and _______ and avoiding ___________.
systematic
objective
ethnocentrism
What two contexts does development always occur in?
social
cultural
Four developmental domains:
physical
cognitive (including language)
personality
sociocultural
Although domains are convenient concepts, development is not compartmentalized; it is ____
holistic
When did the scientific study of human development first begin?
Beginning of 20th century
Being scientific means being ______ and _______ and avoiding ___________.
systematic
objective
ethnocentrism
What two contexts does development always occur in?
social
cultural
Four developmental domains:
physical
cognitive (including language)
personality
sociocultural
Although domains are convenient concepts, development is not compartmentalized; it is ____
holistic
When did the scientific study of human development first begin?
Beginning of 20th century
Being scientific means being ______ and _______ and avoiding ___________.
systematic
objective
ethnocentrism
Most development involves the dynamic interplay of ______ and _________.
biology
experience
Nowadays, interplay of biology and experience is usually expressed as _____ and _____ in interaction
heredity
environment
When interplay of biology is cast as maturation & learning in interaction, emphasis shifts to ________
timing
In most cases, it is more accurate to consider human development in terms of sensitive periods rather than
critical periods
Views of childhood both historically & across cultures:
co-workers
property to be sold or traded
beings without rights
beings with clear-cut rights
How children were once viewed in medieval Europe
miniature adults
Individualist cultures stress _________;
collectivist cultures stress _________
independence
interdependence
How adolescence has become a prolonged period of dependence:
a result of industrialization and increasing need for extended education
What three things that dictate how long a person remains an adolescent:
culture
social context
historical context
How long adulthood lasts and at what point a person becomes "old" varies across & within cultures;one factor is
socioeconomic level
Family composition varies across and within cultures; the _______ family is definitely NOT the norm
nuclear
Case studies attempt to:
create a complete picture of an individual
The earliest developmental case studies were:
baby biographies
Case studies & other descriptive approaches (can) or (cannot) make conclusive statements about cause&effect?
cannot
The advantage of naturalistic or field observation:
studying behavior as it naturally occurs
The advantage of laboratory observation is:
studying behavior under controlled conditions
Surveys using what 2 things have the advantage that they can be administered to large, representative samples:
questionnaires
interviews
Disadvantage to taking surveys include:
people don't always respond
or respond accurately
Psychological tests are often used in developmental research to assess factors such as ____ and ____.
IQ
personality
The best psychological tests are strong in what 3 things?
reliability
validity
standardization
What is a research tool that assesses the degree and direction of correspondence between two variables
correlation
Does correlation yield conclusive statements about cause & effect?
No
The _____ design can provide accurate info on individual developmental change but is time consuming
longitudinal
The ____ design is efficient with regard to time but is subject to cohort effects
cross-sectional
The ____ design is a mix intended to minimize the disadvantages of longitudinal and cross-sectional design
sequential-cohort
What can directly assess cause and effect?
only experiments
Experiments can involve what two things?
studying behavior of person under different situations or comparing behavior of groups under different conditions
A group experiment involves participants in what ways?
randomly placing them in groups; manipulating 1+ independent variables; measure 1+ dependent variables
In group experiments, if the groups' behavior differs, which variable's differences are considered the cause?
independent variable
Qualities of a good experiment include:
systematic & objective
uses reasonable operational definitions
high in internal validity
Why are ethical principles in conducting research with human participants necessary?
To protect them from lasting physical or psychological harm
Since all behaviors cannot be studied experimentally, what is another method these type behaviors can be studied?
by descriptive approaches
What do Institutional Review Boards (IRBs) evaluate?
all research projects to assess any potential for lasting harm
Additional ethical principles include:
informed consent, privacy and confidentiality, knowledge of results & access to any beneficial txs available
Why is informed consent a potential problem?
deception is often used with human participants
Concerning informed consent, what does the term "reconciliations" mean?
The participant can't be deceived about anything that would affect willingness to participate; must be debriefed
Development
changes over time physically, in thought or behavior as a result of both biological & environmental influences
Human Development
continuous process lasting from birth until death. Understanding what happens during this life span.
Context
the immediate and extended settings in which development occurs
Society
organized group of interacting people
Culture
beliefs, norms, practices, languages, ethnicity & shared group identity
Domain
arbitrary segments used to study a population
Physical Domain
Segment of development involving changes in shape & size, brain structure, sensory ability & motor skills
Cognitive Domain
includes acquiring skills in perceiving, reasoning, problem solving; also intricate development/use lang
Personality Domain
includes acquiring relatively stable and enduring traits and a sense of self as an individual
Sociocultural Domain
Segment of development comprised of socialization and enculturation
Ethnocentric Bias
the assumption that what we believe & behave are right and those of others are inferior or abnormal
What do growth, maturation & aging all refer to?
heavily biological processes
Learning
change over time related to practice or experience
Critical Period
Times when some types of development must occur or will never occur
Sensitive or Optimal Period
Times when learning & development occur best and most efficiently, but NOT exclusively
Collectivist Culture
Culture where the group takes precedence over the individual; cooperation/group achievement stressed
Individualist Culture
Where competition pre-
dominates over cooperation & personal achievement is valued more than group success
Case Study
The compilation of often large & intricate amts. info on individual, family or town thru interviews, tests, watch
Baby Biography
Recording mini-milestones of child development (age when child discovers parts of body, etc.)
Questionnaires & Surveys
paper & pencil method of obtaining info from an individual or group. Must be representative sample
Systematic Observations can be done in two settings:
Naturalistic
Laboratory
Representative Sample
sample that accurately mirrors a population
Random Sample
A sample selected in such a way that any member of a population has an equal chance of being selected
Validity & Reliability
Validity measures what it says it will measure
Reliability means it will do so every time **
Standardized
Tests have been given to representative samples to establish norms to enable accurate comparison
Projective Tests
project thoughts, attitudes and feelings as person responds
Longitudinal Design
study of the same participants observed over a lengthy period of time
Cross-Sectional Design
compares individuals at different ages at one point in time
Cohort Effects
the sociocultural differences between people of different age groups
Confounding
the difficulty in determining whether the effects between cohorts are due to development or historically
Sequential-Cohort Design
hybrid approach where different groups of overlapping cohorts are studied longitudinally
Correlation
a math statement of the relationship or correspondence between two variables
Single-Subject Design
uses one subject at a time which is exposed to contingencies expected to alter or affect behavior
Contingency
relationship between behavior and it's consequences
Experimental Design
refers to many considerations necessary for conducting meaningful & valid experiments
Basic Steps in Scientific Method
define problem; develop hypothesis; test hypothesis; draw conclusions; report findings
Independent Variable
Variable that is manipulated in order to observe its effects on the dependent variable
Dependent Variable
Variable that changes as result of manipulating the independent variable
Operational Definitions
actual procedures researchers use to represent variables
Internal Validity
conducting experiment to allow researchers to draw meaningful info about cause & effect relationships
External Validity
The extent to which an experiment corresponds to what happens in the real world
Psychological Tests (3)
IQ tests
Personality tests
Projective tests
Replication
Systematic repetitions of an experiment to determine if findings are valid and generalizable
The social scientist that conducted the Little Albert experiment
J. B. Watson