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124 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
feeling or affect, that involves a mixture of physical arousal and overt behavior
Positive Affectively (PA)
a range of positive emotions from high energy enthusiasm and excitement to being calm and quiet, and withdrawn, that include joy happiness and laughter
negative affectivity (NA)
emotions that are negatively toned such as anxiety anger guilt and sadness
emotional intelligence
form of social intellignce that involves the ability to monitor one's own and other's feelings and emotions, to discriminate among them, and to use this information to guide ones thinking
Golmans views on emotional intelligence

developing emtional awareness
ability to separate feelings from actions
Golmans views on emotional intelligence

managing emotions
being able to control anger
Golmans views on emotional intelligence

reading emotions
taking the perspective of others
Golmans views on emotional intelligence

handeling relationships
ability to solve relationship problems
Maximally Discriminative Facial Movement Coding System (MAX)
Izards system of coding infants facial expressionss related to emotion
Neonatal Smile
appears at birth, its a reaction to most stimulous
3 wks-3 mos
Social Smile
Anger suprise sadness
3 to 4 mos
5 to 7 mos
shame/ shyness
6 to 8 mos
contempt guilt
2 years
Basic cry
rythmic cry, brief silence, inbreath whisle, breif rest
Like basic cry, but with more air forced
anger cry
pain cry
sudden loud cry, long initiated cry followed by extended breath holding
Reflective smile
not in response to stimuli, usually duruing irregular sleep
social smile
response to external stimuli like faces
stranger anxiety
fear and wariness 6-12 mos, peaks at 9-10mos
social referncing
reading emotinal cues in others to determine action

infants often look to mother, common in 2yr
Changes in Emotional Development in: Early Childhood
-better at talking about emotion and words related to emotion
-increase ability to reflect on emotions
-come to understand same event can aflict differently on different people
-increased awareness about controling emotions to meet social standards
Changes in Emotional Development in: Middle Late Childhood
-complex emotion like pride, and shame become internalized and help form sense of repsonsibility
-understand more than one emotional can be felt in the same situation
-take into account events that can lead to emotional reactions
-improved ability to conceal negative emotions
Changes in Emotional Development in: Adolescence
-emotional ups and downs increase in early ados some even need help with anti depressants, but most deal okay
-"termoil" in sterotyped and exxagerated
Changes in Emotional Development in: Adulthood and Aging
-Socialemotional selective theory
-become more selective in their social networks, spend more time with people who relate to their emotional needs
-number of contacts decrease over age
persons behavioral style and typical emotional reponses
Infant temperament
inborn predisposition
Types of infant temperament (Thomas and Chess): easy
usually cheerful, adjusts easily to change, regular in habits
Types of infant temperament (Thomas and Chess): difficult
moody, frustrates easily over react to change, irreg in habits
Types of infant temperament (Thomas and Chess): slow to warm up
low activity level and mood intensity, shy and w/drawln, slow to adapt, but less reactive than difficult
Teperament and Later Development
-longitudinal studies generally show a fair amount of contiuity of temperament from early to late
-context of development:interactions between the child and others may mediate the realtionship between child temp and adult personality
Goodness of Fit
match between a child's temperament and the enviroment demands that child must cope with
longitudinal studies on infant tempermant
fair amount of continuity of tempermant from early childhood to late adulthood
tepermant and parenting
tepermant is a mixture of nature and nuture, but to ensure a good tempermant of a child the parent must be sensitive, flexible and avoid negative labeling of the child
close emotional bond between the infant and the caregiver
newborn birds attach to and follow the first large moving object they see shortly after birth

humans dont impring, but they are prepared to pay special attention to human stimulation
some animals like goats needs immediate physical contact for the mother to bond with the offspring

in humans immediate contact helps with bonding, but parents bond to infants after seperation
Contact Comfort

Harry Harlow
raised monkeys in isolation from birth, two "surrogate" mothers placed in the cage:one gave milk and the other was soft, monkey prefered the cloth monkey (this sort of disproved Freud's theory)
Phase 1: Birth to 2 mos
infants attend to humans and repsond equally to all, no noticeable preferences
Phase 2: 2-7 mos
attach to one figure (primary caregiver) distinguishing familiar from unfamiliar people
Phase 3: 7-24 mos
specific attachment develop and infant maintains proximity to attachment figures
Phase 4: 24 mos on
goal corrected partnership form with children becoming aware of others feelings and goals
Strange situation test
measure of attachment using a series of observation of child meetings, separating from, and reuniting caregiver and stranger
Infant attachment patterns:
secure attachment
infant uses caregiver as a secure base from which to explore; repsonds positively to being picked up by others; protests midly upon separation and responds positively to caregiver upong reunion
Infant attachment patterns:
insecure attachment
engage little with caregiver and cry upon separation, but do not restablish contact updon reunion
Infant attachment patterns:
insecure resistant
often clingy and then oppositional, cry loudly upon separation, but act resentful upon reunion
Infant attachment patterns:
insecure disorganized
baby appears dazed and confused or fearful and show strong patterns of avoidance, resistance or extreme fear
Adolescence attachment:
demphase attachment, parents may have been rejecting
Adolescence attachment:
pre-occupied/ ambivalent
overly focused on attachment issues parents may have been consistantly unavaliable
Adolescence attachment:
unresolved/ disorganized
high fear and disorientation, may result from traumatic expierences with parents
The results of the NICHD longitudinal study of the effects of day care
quality of day care is uneven. the lower income familes have the lowest quality of day care.and even quality day care does not have adverse affects on children
Romantic Love
passionate love or eros, strong feelings including sexual attraction and infatuation, usually predominante earlier in a love realtionship
Affectionate Love
or companoinate love, strong desire for proximity and a deep caring effection, becomes prodominate in a later love relationship
Sternberg's triangular theory of love: passion/intimacy/commitment
there are different degrees and combinations between the three, but in order to have a healthy balance in a long relationship, all must be present
all of the characteristics of a person: includes self understanding, regulation, esteem and concept
who a person is and what is my place what do i belive in? what is my direction in life?
the enduring characteristics of individuals; a unique and consistaent pattern of thinking and feeling and behaving
self understanding
childs cogtitive representation of seld, the substance and content of the child's self concepts
infancy: self-awareness and self-recognition
it is difficult to measure the ability of self understanding because of the lack of communication that infants have
self awareness
know what they know and applying it to situations without realizing the typical responses around them, perfect and imperfect contingency
self recognition
learning to recognize you own image 18 mos of age
Perspective taking
the ability to assume another person's perspective and understand his or her thoughts and feelings
Perspective taking stages: 0
egocentric viewpoint 3-5
child has a sense of differentiation of self and others but fails to distinguish between social perspective of others and self. child can label others overt feelings but does not see the cause and effect relation of reaons to social actions
Perspective taking stages: 1
social informational perspective taking 6-8
child is aware that other has a social perspective based on other's own reaonsing, which may or may not be similar to child's. however, child tends to focus on one perspective rather than coordinating viewpoints
Perspective taking stages: 2
self reflective taking 8-10
child is consious that each inidividual is aware of the other's perspective and that this awreness influences self's and other's view of eachother.child can put himself in someone elses place to better understand the situation,.but cannot abstract from this process of simultaneous mutuality
Perspective taking stages: 3
multiple perspective taking 10-12
can take a step out of their own self to look at a situation where they can see it from the third perspective
Perspective taking stages: 4
social and conventional system perspective taking 12-15
realizes mutual perspective taking does not always lead to a complete understanding. social conventions are seen as necessary bc they are understood by all members of the group
adolescent's self-understanding differs from that of a child
more complex, abtract, and there is concentration on finding out who ceyou are in adolescence
Possible selves
what indviduals might become, what they would like to become and what they are afraid of becoming
Adult development of: self-awareness
knowing your psychological make up, your strengths and weaknesses
Adult development of: possible selves
finding what youre good at in life and applying it to make your life sucessful
Adult development of: Life review
engaging and looking back on one's life expierences evaluating them and sin some cases reinterpretating them:work love like play.
self reguation
ability to control one's behavior without having to rely on others for help
selective optimization with compensation
theory that sucessful self-regulation in aging is related to three main factors: selection, optimization, and compensation
Degree of Personal life investment: 25-34
Degree of Personal life investment: 35-54
cognitive fitness
Degree of Personal life investment: 55-65
cognitive fitness
Degree of Personal life investment: 70-84
cognitive fitness
Degree of Personal life investment: 85 on
thinking about life
cognitive fitness
self concept
domain specific evaluations of the self
self esteem
global evaluative of the self. self esteem also referred to as self image
ways to boost self esteem
-indentification of the causes of low self esteem and the domains of the competence important to ones self
-emotional support and social approval
Erikson's eight psychosocial stages of development: Infancy (0-1) trust vs mistrust
trust involves feeling physical comfort minimal fear about the future and that people will respond to my needs
Erikson's eight psychosocial stages of development: toddler (1-3) autonomy vs shame and doubt
independance, a seperate sense of self discovering my behavior is my own
Erikson's eight psychosocial stages of development: preschool (3-6) initiative vs guilt
developing active purposeful behaviors to cope with teh challenging of wondering social world
Erikson's eight psychosocial stages of development: elementary school (6-puberty)
industry vs inferiority
mastering knowledge and intellectual skills becoming competant
Erikson's eight psychosocial stages of development: Adolescence (10-20) indenity vs role confusion
finding out who i am, what i am all about, where am i going in life, where i fit into society
Erikson's eight psychosocial stages of development: Early adulthood (20-40) intimacy vs isolation
making meaningful contact with abother person finding life partner, developing a shared sense of idenity
Erikson's eight psychosocial stages of development: middle age (40-60) generativity vs stagnation
helping the younger generation develop meaningful lives, making a contribution to society that will outlast oneself
Erikson's eight psychosocial stages of development: old age (60 on) integrity vs despair
reflecting on ones past and perceving together a positive review and that one has led a meaningful life
strenghts of Erikson's theory
socialemtional devel
psychoanalytic theory beyond Frued pyschosexual issues
first lifespan theory
crticisms of Erikson's theory
research base of entire theory not established
concepts are general and vauge
psychosocial moratorium
gap between the security of childhood and the independance of adulthood
time of searching and experimentation for different roles
James Garcia's concepts of crisis and commitment
crisis: exploring meaningful alternatives
commitment: personal investment to a decision
no commitment made and no crisis expierience
indenity diffusion
no commitment made and crisis expierience
indenity moratorium
actively searching
commitment made and crisis expierience
indenity achievement
commitment made and no crisis expierience
indenity foreclosure
consists of 2 demensions: self assertion, the ability to have and communicate a point of view; separateness, the use of communication patterns to express how one is different from others. have to be established by good family relationships
consists of two dimensions: mutuality, respect to others views; permeability, openness to others views. if not present idenity confusion and forclosure will occur
Psychoanalytic theories
that describe development primarily as unconcious and heavily colored by emotion. bahavior is surface characteristic and cannot be fully understod, it lies deeply in the mind. early expieriences with parents shape our development
social cognitive theory
behavior, enviroment and person/cognitive facotrs are impoartant in determining personality
Humnistic theories
that stress the person's congnitive capacity for personal growth, freedom to choose ones own destiny and positive qualities
unconditional positive regard
term for accepting, valuing, and being positive toward another person regardless of the person's behavior. it is the person's worth directs behavior
highest and most elusive of Maslow's needs- the need to develop to ones full potential as a human being
Trait theories
personality consits of broad dispositions, called traits, that tend to lead to characteristic responces
Big five factors of personality
view that persoanlity of made up of emotional stability: extraversion, openness, agreeableness, conscientiousness
Levinson's stage-crisis view of adult development:
17-22 early adulthood trasmission
leaving the family, and establishing independance from parents and explore possibility for adult identity, and form the dream for life
Levinson's stage-crisis view of adult development: 22-28 entering the adult world
build first adult structure, career, marraige, hard word, reliance of specific others
Levinson's stage-crisis view of adult development: 28-22
Age 30 trasition
questions goals and directions, make adjustments, keep plugging away
Levinson's stage-crisis view of adult development: 33-40
culmination of early adulthood
early-settling down, peak of early adulthood, making it, realizing the dream
later-becoming ones own man, feels independant, go for promotion and drop metor
Levinson's stage-crisis view of adult development: 40-45
midlife crisis
searching for meaning, change direction, find new transitional partner
Rest of stages are expected, and data was not collected on these
50-55 age 50 trasition
55-60 culmition of middle adulthood life structure
60-65 late adult trans
Midlife crisis criticsms
no real emperical evidance of the event occuring and the idea is exaggerated
Levinson strenghts
provide framework of development for adults
provide dominant themes at diff ages
does fit many professional med
Levinson cricticsms
only done with interviews
transitions should deal more with events rather than age
life-events approach
emphasizes how specific events influence adult development
strenths of the life-events approach
allows for indi evaluation
stresses interplay between various levels of influence
weaknesses of the life-events approach
over emphazied change and under-emphazied stabilty
Neugarten et al.'s personality types among the aged
personality mediates the relationship between activity level and life satisfaction
Neugarten: Armored/ defended personality
structured social activity as a psychological defense against adjusting to old age
increase in life satisfaction as long as they can maintain the differences
hold on to what they had when they were younger
Neugarten: passive dependant personality
have given up their independance in some way
apathetic: isolate-give up on life
dependant: overly dependant
Neugarten: disintegrated personality