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35 Cards in this Set

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Myelination
The process by which axons become coated with myelin, a fatty substance that speeds the transmission of nerve impulses from neuron to neuron.
Corpus Callosum
A long band of nerve fibers that connect the left and right hemispheres of the brain.
Lateralization
Literally, sidedness. The specialization in certain functions by each side of the brain, with one side dominant for each activity. The left side of the brain controls the right side of the body, and vice versa.
Perseveration
The tendency to persevere in, or stick to, one thought or action for a long time.
Amygdala
A tiny brain structure that registers emotions, particuluary fear and anxiety.
Hippocampus
A brain structure that is a central processor of memory, especially the memory of locations.
Hypothalamus
A brain area that responds to the amygdala and the hippocampus to produce hormones that activate other parts of the brain and body.
Injury Control/Harm Reduction
Practices that are aimed at anticipating, controlling, and preventing dangerous activites; these practices reflect the beliefs that accidents are not random and that injuries can be made less harmful if proper controls are in place.
Primary Prevention
Actions that change overall background conditions to prevent some unwanted event or circumstance, such as injury, disease, or abuse.
Secondary Prevention
Actions that avert harm in a high-risk situation, such as stopping a car before it hits a pedestrian.
Tertiary Prevention
Actions, such as immediate and effective medical treatment, that are taken after an adverse event such as illness or injury occurs, and are aimed at reducing the harm or preventing disability.
Child Maltreatment
Intentional harm to or avoidable endangerment of anyone under 18 years of age.
Child Abuse
Deliberate action that is harmful to a child's physical, emotional, or sexual well-being.
Child Neglect
Failure to meet a child's basic physical, educational, or emotional needs.
Reported Maltreatment
Harm or endangerment about which someone has notified the authorities.
Substantiated Maltreatment
Harm or endangerment that has been reported, investigated, and verified.
Post-traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)
A delayed reaction to a trauma or shock, which may include hyperactivity and hypervigiliance, displaced anger, sleeplessness, sudden terror or anxiety, and confusion between fantasy and reality.
Permanency Planning
An effort by authorities to find a long-term living situation that will provide stability and support for a maltreated child. A goal is to avoid repeated changes of caregiver or school, which can be particularly harmful for the child.
Foster Care
A legal, publicly supported plan in which a maltreated child is removed from the parent's custody and entrusted to another adult, who is paid to be the child's caregiver.
Kinship Care
A form of foster care in which a relative of a maltreated child becomes the approved caregiver.
Describe body development during the play years.
Children grow steadily taller and proportionally thinner. Overweight is more common than underweight because their picky eating habits and small appetites are often rewarded with high calorie foods by adults.
Describe brain development during the play years.
1) Speed of thought is increased through myelination, the brain's hemispheres are connected with the copus callosum and specialization or laterialization occurs.
2) The prefrontal cortex matures making sleep more regular, emotions more responsive to specific stimuli, subsiding of temper tantrums, uncontrollable tears and laughter subside, and attention span increases and becomes more focused. The prefrontal cortex enables impulse control.
3) The limbic system matures which aids emotional expression and control.
4) Maturation of the brian leads to better control of the body and to development of motor skills.
Describe the development of gross motor skills during the play years.
Maturation of the prefrontal cortex improves impulse control and myelination of the corpus callosum and lateralization permits better coordination. Child motivation and guided practice also makes these skills possible, especially with peers.
Describe the development of fine motor skills during the play years.
Maturation of the prefrontal cortex improves impulse control and myelination of the corpus callosum and lateralization permits better coordination. Child motivation and guided practice also makes these skills possible. Many fine motor skills require two hands, thus the myelination of the corpus callosum is important. Short stubby fingers can add to the difficulty in mastering these skills.
Describe the development of artistic expression during the play years.
Children are imaginative, creative, and not yet self-critical. They love to express themselves because the immaturity of the prefrontal cortex allows imagination to run free reign without the social anxiety of older children.
Identify several factors that contribute to variation in the risk of accidental injury among children during the play years.
Children during the play years are prone to injury because the immaturity of the prefrontal cortex makes them impulsive. Their motor skills allow them to run, leap, scramble and grab in a flash. Their curiosity is boundless; their impulses are uninhibited.
What is the difference between and accident and injury?
Accident implies that an injury is random and unpredictable. Injury are not unpredicatable, unavoidable events.
What are 3 levels of injury prevention?
Primary prevention when the overall situation is structured to make injuries less likely for everyone; Secondary prevention is more specific, averting harm to individuals in high risk situations; and Tertiary prevention when an injury has happened but steps are taken to omit the damage it causes.
Identify the various categories of child maltreatment.
Child Abuse is deliberate action that is harmful to a child's physical, emotional, or sexual well being; and Child Neglect which is failure to appropriately meet a child's basic physical or emotional needs.
What are the signs of child maltreatment?
Delayed development such as slow growth, immature communication, lack of curiosity, or unusal social interactions. Other emotional signs include fearful, startled by noise, defensive or quick to attack, confusion between fantasy and reality (all PTSD symptoms), withdrawal, self critical, aggressive.
What are the consequences of child maltreatment?
1) Compromises basic health - more often injured, sick and hospitalized;
2) Learning is compromised through lack of learning experiences (social isolation);
3) Social skills are compromised - less friendly, more agreessive, and more isolated;
4) Teens often become bullies or victims;
5) Adults often use drugs or alcohol, enter unsupportive relationships, become victims or aggressors, sabotage their own careers, eat too much or too little, and engage in self-destructive behavior.
Discuss foster care, kinship care, and adoption as options in cases of child maltreatment.
Children fare best when they are secure in their environment. Permenancy planning involves efforts by authorities to find a home that will nutrue the child until adulthood. Children develop better in foster care or kinship care than with their original abusive families if a supervising agency screens foster families and provides ongoing financial and emotional support. Many agencies are inadequate at providing this, often moving children from home to home (foster children average 3 placements before finding a permanent home). Adoption is the preferred permanent option but many judges and biological parents are relcutant to release children to adoption. "Perfect" families (those with heterosexual married couple, middle class, same ethnicity as the child, and the wife is not employed) are few.
Describe a typical 6 year old's body dimensions.
Is at least 3.5 feet tall
Weighs between 40-50 pounds (square 46 inches, 46 pounds)
Looks lean, not chubby (ages 5-6 are lowest in body fat)
Has adult-like body proportions (legs constitue about half the total height)
Brain is 90% adult weight by age 5
What percentage of their time does a typical 3-year-old spend playing?
US middle class family - 45%
US working class family - 60%
Other countries - 55-60%
What percentage of their time does a typical 3-year-old spend doing lessons?
US middle class family - 8%
US working class - 5%
Kenyans - 6-7%
Brazilians - 2-3%
African Americans - 4-6%