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81 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
occurs when the information does not fit any existing schema or challenges
every culture has designated roles or activities based on age, such as naming ceremonies for infants, puberty rituals, and ages at which a person begins formal schooling, gets a driver license, or retires
means taking in information as it is incorporting that new knowledge into an exisiting framework
Do not view development as occuring indicrete stages. They focus enterily on the nurture or environement, side of nature-nurture debate and consider development as a more continous process
Case Study
sometimes one individual is observed very closely, given surveys, or interviewed, and the information is discussed in a case study report.
The pattern of events that unfold over chronological age, including the historical and social context.
Classical Conditioning
Discovered by accident by Ivan Pavlov- He found that after he had fed the dogs a number of times, they would begin to salivate as soon as he entered the room, anticipating that he would feed them.
Cognitive Development
Refers to the concept of intelligence as well as the specific aspects of our thinking processes such as moral reasoning, language development, memory skills and the ability to learn, read, write or do math.
Cohort Differences
Studying people over time (longitudinally) accounts for cohort differences that arise from the unique sociocultural factors to which people of different generations are exposed.
Confounding variables
are things that might affect the result in unanticipated ways or that were not controlled for in the design of the experiment.
Some information is readily available to us and is thus in the conscious mind
Theorists believe that development is the resul of gradual and cumulative change overh the entire life span
Controlled experiments
are done in a laboratory setting where much greater control over extraneous variables can take place
Which means that the variables are related, but you can not sya whether one caused the other
Groups can be studied at only one point in time
Data analysis
refers to statistical procedures that are done to make sense of the findings of a study
Defense mechanisms
our egos must defend us from daily assaults
Dependent variables
are the outcome measures of interest, such as the score on the math test after having special instruction
Descriptive research
is also called correlational which means that the variables are related, but you can not say whether one caused the other
Descriptive statistics
Include means, medians, modes, frequencies, and simple correlations.
refers to changes that occur overtime, across the entire life span
Theorists believe that development occurs in discrite, identifiable stages
Ecological Theory
Refers to the idea that behavior is largely influenced by biological factors, particularly behaviors that have developed over time (evolutionary)
is centered on the reality principle and starts to develop in infancy
Sociobiology has come to mean much the same
the world that is not quite as close to the individual
Field Experiment
the observation takes place in a natural setting, but there is some manipulation or control over variables, such as giving some children special math instruction and others the usual math instruction, then observing their scores on a math test.
Hierarchy of Human needs
Perspective on human learning by Maslow- He proposed that physical needs, like huner and thirst, and emotional needs, like feeling safe and secure, must be met before the child is ready for academic/cognitive tasks.
Each generation (age cohort) is influenced by the historical events that occur in their lifetime
Humanistic Theories
Stress that people can take control over their own behavior and are not merely pawns of reinforcement or driven by genetic factors
A research question based on some theoretical perspective
is centered on seeking pleasure and avoiding pain and is present at birth
Independent variables
are the ones that are manipulated by the experimenter, such as the type of math instruction
Inferential statistics
are used to determine if there is a significant different between two or more scores, or to determine if some score could occur just by chance
Informed consent
completely understanding what one is consenting to
groups can be studied at many different times
consists of the dominant ideology (attitudes and beliefs of a culture reflected in its educational, legal, religious
looks at how the structures in the microsystem intersect and interact with each other
the structures that imping on the individual every day, such as family, school, peers, and close neighbors
Moral reasoning
refers to the way that people use cognitive processes to solve ethical dilemmas
physical, cognitive, emotional personality
Naturalistic observation
involve watching people in their natural settings, such as at a daycare center, a school, or a workplace, and recording information about how people behave
There are many events that are not universal or even widespread, but can have significant influence on person's development
Operant conditioning
differs from classical in that no reflexive behavior is required. Instead, people are reinforced for certain behaviors.
Physical Growth
Includes the development of human organs in the prenatal period, the growth in size and changes in functioning that occur in child hood and adolescence, and then the declines and alterations in functioning that occur with more advanced aging
is the intermediary between the unconscious and conscious minds
Psychodynamic Theories
Originated with Freud, and they focus on the idea that we have an "unconscious" mind that contains emotionally charged memories of early life experiences.
Psychosocial theory
Focuses more on non-sexual crises or turning points that occur throughout the entire life span
Scientific method
involves formulating a hpothesis
a person who has all needs met
the study of how people come to believe that they are competent or likely to succeed at different kinds of tasks
Sequential design
A combination of cross sectional and longitudinal designs
Social/emotional development
encompasses temperament, personality, and socialization into a particular cultural group
is the conscience; it tells the person what s/he should or should not do
Only available through hypnosis
Nature people say all things are genetically determined
Nature vs. Nurture
What is the best way to get information about large groups of college students wexual habits?
What is the main problem with experiments?
They do not mirror real life because they are control
What is the type of study used to determin how five year old children change how they think as they get older?
A five year old child plans on his own to do something. What is he in?
Initiative vs. Guilt
At what age is a person in identity vs. role confusion stage?
What is the stage that early adulthood stage persons in?
Intimacy vs. Isolation
An older adult looks back on his life and whishes he had done things better. What stage is he in?
Integrity vs. Despair
Two students are talking to each other during a college lecture. The professor stops lecturing and stares at the student until they stop. What is this reinforcement?
Negative reinforcement (operant conditioning)
Who thought that: Differ in person relationship to family and culture?
Group of people with different ages but similar in other ways compared
Cross sectional
Combination of cross sectional and longitudal where different age groups are studied over long period of time
Sequential research
Information collected from number of people by questionaires
Variables of scientific experiments
Might change as result of change or adding independant varibale in experiment
Denpendant variable
Group born within few years same historical and social conditions
Cohort effects
Originated psycohanalytic theory, oral, anal, phallic, latency and genital
Adulthood is stable with transitional periods
Added onto Erickson theory, used longitudinal studies in career consolidation
Operant conditioning (pos/neg reinforcement)
Reciprocal determinism
Sensorimotor, preoperational, concrete operational, formal operational
Apprenticeship in thinking, and zone of proximal development
Language advances thinking through private speech
Zone of proximal development
Systemic body of testable theories that can be verified or refuted
The science of lifespan development
A major strenght of __________ theory is its framework for explaining environmental influences on development.