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104 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
obesity
body weight more than 20% higher than the average weight for a person of a given age and height.
lateralization
the process in which certain cognitive functions are located more in onehemisphere of the brain than in the other.
myelin
protective insulation that surrounds parts of neurons
handedness
the preference of using one hand over another
preoperational stage
according to Piaget,
the stage from approximately age 2 to age 7 in which children’s use of symbolic thinking grows, mental reasoning emerges, and the use of concepts increases.
operations
organized, formal, logical mental processes.
centration
the process of concentrating on one limited aspect of a stimulus and ignoring other aspects.
conservation
the knowledge that quantity is unrelated to the arrangement and physical appearance of objects.
transformation
the process in which one state is changed into another.
egocentric thought
thinking that does not take into account the viewpoints of others.
intuitive thought
thinking that reflects preschoolers’ use of primitive reasoning and their avid acquisition of knowledge about the world.
autobiographical memory
memory of particular events from one’s own life
scripts
broad representations in memory of events and the order in which they occur
zone of proximal development (ZPD)
according to Vygotsky, the level at which a child can almost, but not fully, perform a task independently, but can do so with the assistance of someone more competent
scaffolding
the support for learning and problem solving that encourages independence and growth
syntax
the way in which an individual combines words and phrases to form sentences
fast mapping
instances in which new words are associated with their meaning after only a brief encounter
grammar
the system of rules that determines how our thoughts can be expressed.
private speech
speech by children that is spoken and directed to themselves
pragmatics
the aspect of language that relates to communicating effectively and appropriately with others
social speech
speech directed toward another person and meant to be understood by that person
developmentally appropriate educational practice
education that is based on both typical development and the unique characteristics of a given child
psychosocial development
according to Erikson, development that encompasses changes both in the understandings individuals have of themselves as members of society and in their comprehension of the meaning of others’ behavior.
initiative-versus-guilt stage
according to Erikson, the period during which children aged 3 to 6 years experience conflict between independence of action and the sometimes negative results of that action.
self-concept
a person’s identity, or set of beliefs about what one is like as an individual.
collectivistic orientation
philosophy that promotes the notion of interdependence.
individualistic orientation
a philosophy that emphasizes personal identity and the uniqueness of the individual.
race dissonance
the phenomenon in which minority children indicate preferences for majority values or people.
identification
the process in which children attempt to be similar to their same-sex parent, incorporating the parent’s attitudes and values.
gender identity
the perception of oneself as male or female
gender schema
a cognitive framework that organizes information relevant to gender
gender constancy
the belief that people are permanently males or females,depending on fixed, unchangeable biological factors
androgynous
a state in which gender roles encompass characteristics thought typical of both sexes
functional play
play that involves simple, repetitive activities typical of 3-year-olds
constructive play
play in which children manipulate objects to produce or build something
parallel play
action in which children play with similar toys, in a similar manner, but do not interact with each other
onlooker play
action in which children simply watch others at play, but do not actually participate themselves
associative play
play in which two or more children actually interact with one another by sharing or borrowing toys or materials, although they do not do the same thing
cooperative play
play in which children genuinely interact with one another, taking turns, playing games, or devising contests
authoritarian parents
parents who are controlling, punitive, rigid, and cold, and whose word is law
permissive parents
parents who provide lax and inconsistent feedback and require little of their children
authoritative parents
parents who provide lax and inconsistent feedback and require little of their children
uninvolved parents
parents who show almost no interest in their children and indifferent, rejecting behavior
cycle of violence hypothesis
the theory that the abuse and neglect that children suffer predispose them as adults to abuse and neglect their own children
psychological maltreatment
abuse that occurs when parents or other caregivers harm children’s behavioral, cognitive, emotional, or physical functioning
resilience
the ability to overcome circumstances that place a child at high risk for psychological or physical damage
moral development
the changes in people’s sense of justice and of what is right and wrong, and in their behavior related to moral issues
prosocial behavior
helping behavior that benefits others
abstract modeling
the process in which modeling paves the way for the development of more general rules and principles
empathy
the understanding of what another individual feels
aggression
intentional injury or harm to another person
emotional self-regulation
the capability to adjust emotions to a desired state and level of intensity
instrumental aggression
aggression motivated by the desire to obtain a concrete goal
relational aggression
nonphysical aggression that is intended to hurt another person’s psychological well-being
asthma
a chronic condition characterized by periodic attacks of wheezing, coughing, and shortness of breath
visual impairment
a difficulty in seeing that may include blindness or partial sightedness
auditory impairment
a special need that involves the loss of hearing or some aspect of hearing
speech impairment
speech that deviates so much from the speech of others that it calls attention to itself, interferes with communication, or produces maladjustment in the speaker
stuttering
substantial disruption in the rhythm and fluency of speech; the most common speech impairment
learning disabilities
difficulties in the acquisition and use of listening, speaking, reading, writing, reasoning, or mathematical abilities
attention deficit
hyperactivity disorder
(ADHD)
a learning disability marked by inattention, impulsiveness, a low tolerance for frustration, and generally a great deal of inappropriate activity.
concrete operational stage
the period of cognitive development between 7 and 12 years of age, which is characterized by the active, and appropriate, use of logic
decentering
the ability to take multiple aspects of a situation into account
memory
the process by which information is initially recorded, stored, and retrieved
metamemory
an understanding about the processes that underlie memory, which emerges and improves during middle childhood
metalinguistic awareness
an understanding of one’s own use of language
bilingualism
the use of more than one language
multicultural education
a form of education in which the goal is to help minority students develop competence in the culture of the majority group while maintaining positive group identities that build on their original cultures
cultural assimilation model
the model that fostered the view of American society as the proverbial melting pot
pluralistic society model
the concept that American society is made up of diverse, coequal cultural groups that should preserve their individual cultural features
bicultural identity
Maintaining one’s original cultural identity while integrating oneself into the dominant culture
intelligence
the capacity to understand the world, think with rationality, and use resources effectively when faced with challenges
mental age
the typical intelligence level found for people at a given chronological age
chronological (or physical)
age
the actual age of the child taking the intelligence test
intelligence quotient (or IQ
score)
a measure of intelligence that takes into account a student’s mental and chronological age
Stanford-Binet Intelligence
Scales, Fifth Edition (SB5)
a test that consists of a series of items that vary according to the age of the person being tested
Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children—Fourth Edition (WISC-IV)
a test for children that provides separate measures of verbal and performance (or nonverbal) skills, as well as a total score
Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children, Second edition (KABC—II)
an intelligence test that measures children’s ability to integrate different stimuli simultaneously and step-by-step thinking
fluid intelligence
intelligence that reflects information processing capabilities, reasoning, and memory
crystallized intelligence
the accumulation of information, skills, and strategies that people have learned through experience and that they can apply in problem-solving situations
triarchic theory of intelligence
a model that states that intelligence consists of three aspects of information processing: the componential element, the experiential element, and the contextual element
least restrictive environment
the setting that is most similar to that of children without special needs
mainstreaming
an educational approach in which exceptional children are integrated to the extent possible into the traditional educational system and are provided with a broad range of educational alternatives
mental retardation
a significantly subaverage level of intellectual functioning that occurs with related limitations in two or more skill areas
mild retardation
retardation in which IQ scores fall in the range of 50 or 55 to 70
moderate retardation
retardation in which IQ scores range from around 35 or 40 to 50 or 55
severe retardation
retardation in which IQ scores range from around 20 or 25 to 35 or 40
profound retardation
retardation in which IQ scores fall below 20 or 25
gifted and talented
children who show evidence of high performance capability in areas such as intellectual, creative, artistic, leadership capacity, or specific academic fields
acceleration
special programs that allow gifted students to move ahead at their own pace, even if this means skipping to higher grade levels
enrichment
an approach through which students are kept at grade level but are enrolled in special programs and given individual activities to allow greater depth of study on a given topic
industry-versus-inferiority stage
the period from age 6 to 12 characterized by a focus on efforts to attain competence in meeting the challenges presented by parents, peers, school, and the other complexities of the modern world
social comparison
the desire to evaluate one’s own behavior, abilities, expertise, and opinions by comparing them to those of others
self-esteem
an individual’s overall and specific positive and negative selfevaluation
status
the evaluation of a role or person by other relevant members of a group
social competence
the collection of social skills that permits individuals to perform successfully in social settings
social problem-solving
the use of strategies for solving social conflicts in ways that are satisfactory both to oneself and to others
dominance hierarchy
rankings that represent the relative social power of those in a group
coregulation
a period in which parents and children jointly control children’s behavior
self-care children
children who let themselves into their homes after school and wait alone until their caretakers return from work; previously known as latchkey children
blended families
a remarried couple that has at least one stepchild living with them
attributions
people’s explanations for the reasons behind their behavior
teacher expectancy effect
the cycle of behavior in which a teacher transmits an expectation about a child and thereby actually brings about the expected behavior
emotional intelligence
the set of skills that underlies the accurate assessment, evaluation, expression, and regulation of emotions