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86 Cards in this Set

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What are the four criteria for postformal thought?
*shifting gears
*multiple causality, multiple solutions
*pragmatism
*Awareness of a Paradox
Postformal Thought
mature type of thinking which relies on subjective experience and intuition
Postformal thought Criteria:

Shifting Gears
Ability to shift back and forth between abstract and the practical
Postformal thought criteria:

Multiple Causality, multiple solutions
Awareness that most problems have more than one cause and more than one solution, with some solutions more likely than others
Postformal thought criteria:

Pragmatism
The ability to choose the best of several possible solutions and recognize the criteria for choosing.
Criteria of Postformal thought:

Awareness of Paradox
Recognition that a problem or solution involves inherent conflict.
How many stages are in Schaie's Model of Cognitive development?
seven
List the stages of Schaie's Model of Cognitive development.
Acquisitive Stage
Achieving Stage
Responsible Stage
Executive Stage
Re-organizational Stage
Legacy creating Stage
Re-integrative Stage
Schaie's Model of Cognitive development:
Describe-

Acquisitive Stage
First stage- where children and adolescents learn information and skills largely for their own sake or as a preparation for participation in society.
Schaie's Model of Cognitive development:
Describe-

Achieving Stage
Second stage- young adults use knowledge to gain competence and independence.
Schaie's Model of Cognitive development:
Describe-

Responsible Stage
Third stage- middle-aged people are concerned with long range goals and practical problems related to their responsibility for others.
Schaie's Model of Cognitive development:
Describe-

Executive Stage
Forth Stage- middle aged people responsible for social systems deal with complex relationships on several levels.
Schaie's Model of Cognitive development:
Describe-

Re-organizational Stage
Fifth Stage- Adults entering retirement reorganize their lives around network related activities.
Schaie's Model of Cognitive development:
Describe-

Re-integrative Stage
Sixth Stage- Older adults choose to focus limited energy on tasks that have meaning to them.
Schaie's Model of Cognitive development:
Describe-

Legacy-Creating Stage
Seventh Stage- Very old people prepare for death by recording their life stories, distributing possessions and the like.
Define Emotional Intelligence
The ability to understand and regulate emotions
List the four competencies related to Emotional Intelligence.
Self-Awareness
Self-Management
Social Awareness
Relationship Management
Emotional Intelligence:
Describe-

Self-Awarness
A person is aware of emotions and is self confident and accurate assessor of self.
Emotional Intelligence:
Describe-

Self-Management
A person has self control, adaptability, and a drive to achieve among other qualities.
Emotional Intelligence:
Describe-

Social Awareness
A person has empathy and is oriented toward helping others.
Emotional Intelligence:
Describe-

Relationship Management
A person can develop others, exert influence,communicate effectively, and be a good leader.
Describe Erik Erikson's Sixth stage of Development, Intimacy versus Isolation and the virtue of love.
Young adults need to form intimate, loving relationships with other people. Success leads to strong relationships and love, while failure leads to a sense of loneliness and isolation.
List the Five Factors of Costa and McCrae's Model.
Neuroticism
Extraversion
Open to Experience
Conscientiousness
Agreeable
Costa and McCrae's Five Factor Model:
Describe-

Neurotiscism
six negative traits indicating emotional instability including anxiety, hostility, depression, self-consciousness, impulsiveness and vulnerability.
Costa and McCrae's Five Factor Model:
Describe-

Extraversion
Six facets including warmth, gregariousness, assertiveness, activity, excitement-seeking, and positive emotions.
Costa and McCrae's Five Factor Model:
Describe-

Open to Experience
People high in this trait are willing to try new things and embrace new ideas.
Costa and McCrae's Five Factor Model:
Describe-

Conscientiousness
People high in this trait are achievers; competent, orderly, dutiful, deliberate and disciplined.
Costa and McCrae's Five Factor Model:
Describe-

Agreeable
People who are trusting, straightforward, altruistic, compliant, modest and easily swayed.
What are the three elements of Sternberg's Triangular theory of love?
Passion
Intimacy
Commitment
List the four types of love according to Sternberg.
Infatuation
Affectionate
Fatuous
Consummate
Sternberg's Triangular theory of love:
Describe-

Passion
physical and sexual attraction to another
Sternberg's Triangular theory of love:
Describe-

Intimacy
emotional feelings of warmth, closeness and sharing in a relationship.
Sternberg's Triangular theory of love:
Describe-

Commitment
The cognitive appraisal of the relationship and the intent to maintain the relationship even in the face of problems.
What is the basic theology of Sternberg's Triangular theory of love?
The different types of love are achieved by different combinations of the three elements passion, intimacy and commitment.
Sternberg's Triangular theory of love:
Describe-

Infatuation
Relationship with only passion no intimacy or commitment.
Sternberg's Triangular theory of love:
Describe-

Affectionate love
A relationship with both intimacy and commitment but lacking passion.
Sternberg's Triangular theory of love:
Describe-

Fatuous love
A relationship with both passion and commitment but lacking intimacy.
Sternberg's Triangular theory of love:
Describe-

Consummate love
The fullest and strongest love. A relationship with all three elements; passion, intimacy and commitment.
Define "coming out" in the homosexual sense.
The voluntary public announcement of sexual orientation,sexual attraction, or gender identity.
List the four stages of coming out.
*Recognition of being a homosexual
*Getting to know other people who are homosexual
*Telling family and friends
*Complete openess
List the five areas where age related visual problems occur.
*near vision
*Dynamic vision (reading moving signs)
*Sensitivity to light
*Visual search (locating sign)
*speed of processing
Describe Perimenopause.
Period of time lasting an average of 10 years usually occurring during the forties where transition from normal menstrual cycle to menopause occurs.
Describe Menopause
Menstrual cycle ceases, dramatic decline in production of estrogen from ovaries causing symptoms such as; hot flashes, nausea, fatigue and rapid heartbeat.
Describe Fluid intelligence.
Proposed by Horn and Cattell

applied to novel problems and is relatively independent of educational and cultural influences
Describe Crystallized intelligence.
Proposed by Horn and Cattell

The ability to remember and use learned information; it is largely dependent on education and cultural background.
Describe an age-differentiated society.
Life structure in which primary roles- learning, working and leisure- are based on age. Typical in industrialized societies.
Describe an age-integrated society.
Life structure in which primary roles- learning, working and leisure- are open to adults of all ages and can be interspersed throughout the life span.
What is the difference between an age-differentiated society and an age-integrated society?
In an age-differentiated society the age of an adult indicates which role of life they should partake in while in an age-integrated society an adult may partake in any role at any time during their life.
Describe Erikson's seventh stage; middle adulthood and its developmental task of generativity versus stagnation and the virtue of care.
Adults need to create and nurture things that will outlast them; children for example and develop a widening commitment to take care of others. Success leads to feelings of usefulness and accomplishment failure leads to shallow involvement in the world.
List Kotre's four form of generativity.
Biological
Parental
Technical
Cultural
Kotre's Four Forms of Generativity:
Describe-

Biological form
Conceiving and bearing children.
Kotre's Four Forms of Generativity:
Describe-

Parental
Nurturing and raising children
Kotre's Four Forms of Generativity:
Describe-

Technical
Teaching skills to apprentices
Kotre's Four Forms of Generativity:
Describe-

Cultural
Transmitting cultural values and institutions
Describe the theory of midlife crisis.
stressful life period precipitated by the review and reevaluation of ones past, typically occurring in early to middle forties.
Describe the theory of midlife review.
Introspective examination that often occurs in middle age, leading to reappraisal and revison of values and priorities.
List the five types of familial relationships
Tight-knit
Sociable
Obligatory
Detached
Intimate but distant
Types of familial relationships:
Describe-

Tight-Knit
Intergenerational families in which the members live physically close and are emotionally close.
Types of familial relationships:
Describe-

Sociable
Intergenerational families in which there is less emotional affinity or commitment, although the members live physically close to one another.
Types of familial relationships:
Describe-

Obligatory
Intergenerational families in which there is a lot of interaction but little emotional attachment.
Types of familial relationships:
Describe-

Detached
Intergenerational families in which members are geographically and emotionally far away from each other.
Types of familial relationships:
Describe-

Intimate but distant
Intergenerational families in which members live far away from each other or spend little time with each other, but retain warm feelings.
Describe the social convoy theory.
Theory of aging proposed by Kahn and Antonucci, which holds that people move through life surrounded by concentric circles of intimate relationships for assistance, well-being, and social support. or varying degrees of closeness, on which people rely
Define a social convoy.
Circles of close friends and family members on whom people can rely for assistance, well-being, and social support, and to whom they also offer reciprocal care.
Describe primary aging.
Gradual inevitable process of bodily deterioration throughout the lifespan.
Describe secondary aging.
Aging processes that result from disease, bodily abuse and disuse and are usually avoidable.
Define Ageism.
Prejudice or discrimination against a person based on age.
Define Life expectancy.
Age to which a person is statistically likely to live to.
Define Longevity.
Length of an individuals life
Define lifespan.
The longest period that members of a species can live.
Describe reserve capacity.

(aka organ reserve)
Changes
Reserve capacity: Ability of body organs and systems to put forth four to ten times as much effort as usual under stress; also called organ reserve.
What is Baltes' dual process model of cognitive function?
Model of cognitive functioning in late adulthood, proposed by Baltes, which identifies and seeks to measure two dimensions of intelligence: mechanics and pragmatics.
List the three components of Baltes' dual process model of cognitive function.
mechanics of intelligence
pragmatics of intelligence
selective optimization with compensation
Baltes' dual process model of cognitive function:
Describe-

Mechanics of intelligence
The abilities to process information and solve problems, irrespective of content; the area of cognition where the is often an age-related decline
Baltes' dual process model of cognitive function:
Describe-

Pragmatics of intelligence
The dimension of intelligence that tends to grow with age and includes practical thinking, application of accumulated knowledge and skills, specialized expertise, professional productivity and wisdom.
Baltes' dual process model of cognitive function:
Describe-

Selective optimization with compensation
strategy for maintaining or enhancing overall cognitive functioning by using stronger abilities to compensate for those that have weakened.
Describe Erikson's Final stage; ego integrity versus despair and the virtue of wisdom
In the last stage of life an individual reflects back on their life and either feels pride and joy resulting in wisdom or guilt and regret resulting in despair.
Describe the Cognitive-appraisal model of copying.
Model of coping, proposed by Lazarus and Folkman, which holds that, on the basis of continuous appraisal of their relationship with the environment, people choose appropriate coping strategies to deal with situations that tax their normal resources.
Describe problem-focused copying.
In the cognitive-appraisal model, coping strategy directed toward eliminating, managing, or improving a stressful situation.
Describe emotion-focused copying.
In the cognitive-appraisal model, coping strategy directed toward managing the emotional response to a stressful situation so as to lessen its physical or psychological impact; sometimes called palliative coping.
Describe the disengagement theory of aging.
Theory of aging, proposed by Cumming and Henry, which holds that successful aging is characterized by mutual withdrawal between the older person and society.
List problems with the disengagement theory.
disengaging in the final phase of life is not a positive action, more engagement and activity leads to greater life satisfaction.
Describe hospice care.
Warm, personal patient- and family-centered care for a person with a terminal illness.
Describe palliative care.
Care aimed at relieving pain and suffering and allowing the terminally ill to die in peace, comfort, and dignity.
List Kubler-Ross' five stages of coming to terms with death.
Denial
Anger
Bargaining for extra time
Depression
Acceptance
Describe an advanced directive.
A living will, documents describing the type of care wanted by the maker in the event of a terminal illness.