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97 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
cell
The basic unit of structure of all living things.
life processes
The functions that a living things must carry out to stay alive and produce more of its own kind.
nutrients
Substances that are needed for an organism to live and grow.
tissue
Similar cells working together.
organ
Different types of tissue working together to perform a certain function.
organ system
Groups of organs working together.
cell membrane
A thin layer that surrounds all cells and allows water and dissolved materials to pass into and out of the cell.
nucleus
The cell structure that controls all of a cell's activities.
vacuole
A cell part that stores water and nutrients.
cytoplasm
The jellylike substance that fills much of the cell.
chloroplast
A structure in plant cells that captures light energy that is used in the food-making process.
cell wall
the tough outer covering of a plant cell that gives the cell its rigid shape.
root
the underground part of a plant that anchors the plant and absorbs water and nutrients.
stem
The part of a plant that supports the leaves and flowers and carries water to those parts.
leaf
A plant part in which photosynthesis takes place.
photosynthesis
The process by which producers, such as plants, make their own food by using energy from the Sun.
cell respiration
The process of using oxygen to release energy from food.
tropism
A growth response of a plant to conditions in the environment, such as light or water.
complete metamorphosis
The development of an organism through four stages - egg, larva, pupa, and adult.
egg
The first stage in an organism's life cycle.
larva
The wormlike, or grub, stage that follows the egg stage of an insect's life cycle.
pupa
The stage in a life cycle between the larva and the adult.
adult
The final stage of an organism's life cycle.
vertebrate
An animal with a backbone.
sexual reproduction
The production of offspring that occurs when a male sex cell joins a female sex cell.
pollen grain
A structure produced in the male part of a flower and which contains the male sex cell.
pollination
The transfer of pollen grains to the pistil of a flower.
Embryo
An organism in its earliest stages of development; in most plants it is found inside a seed.
fruit
The enlarged ovary of a flower that protects the developing seeds.
fertilization
The process by which a male sex cell joins with a female sex cell.
germination
The sprouting of a seed.
conifer
A tree or shrub that bears its seeds in cones.
digestive system
The organ system in which food is broken down into a form that body cells can use.
saliva
The watery liquid in the mouth that begins the chemical breakdown of food.
enzymes
Chemicals that help break down food.
peristalsis
A wavelike motion that moves food through the digestive system.
stomach
The muscular organ that stores food and helps digest it.
small intestine
The long coiled organ where most digestion takes place.
villi
Looplike structures in the wall of the small intestine in which nutrients are passed from the small intestine into the blood.
large intestine
The organ that absorbs water and salts from undigested material.
respiratory system
The body parts that work together to take air into the body and push it back out.
trachea
The air tube that joins the throat to the lungs.
larynx
The part of the throat that is used in speaking.
bronchial tubes
Tubes that carry air from the trachea to the lungs.
air sacs
Thin-walled chambers in the lung through which oxygen moves into the blood.
circulatory system
The transport system of the body that carries oxygen and nutrients to all cells and then removes wastes.
heart
The pump that pushes blood throughout the entire circulatory system.
blood vessels
Form a network through which the heart pumps blood. There are three kinds of vessels - arteries, capillaries, and veins.
blood
A tissue made up of a liquid called plasma and several types of cells.
arteries
Blood vessels that carry blood away from the heart.
capillaries
Tiny blood vessels that connect the smallest arteries with the smallest veins.
veins
Blood vessels that carry blood from the capillaries to the heart.
pulse
The throbbing caused by blood rushing into the arteries when the lower chambers of the heart contract.
recipient
A person who receives blood in a blood transfusion.
donor
A person who gives blood for a blood transfusion.
excretory system
The system for ridding the body of harmful wastes produced by the cells.
kidneys
A pair of organs that clean and filter the blood.
swet glands
Small coiled tubes that end at pores on the skin's surface.
ecosystem
An area in which living and nonliving things interact.
community
All the organisms living together in a particular ecosystem.
population
A group of the same kind of organisms that live in an area.
adaptation
A structure or behavior that enables an organism to survive in its environment.
niche
The role that each species plays in a community.
producer
An organism that makes its own food through photosynthesis.
consumer
A living thing that obtains
energy by eating other living things.
decomposer
A living thing that breaks down the remains of dead organisms.
herbivore
A consumer that eats only plants or other producers.
carnivore
A consumer that eats only other animals.
omnivore
A consumer that eats both plants and animals.
parasitism
A relationship between two organisms in which one organism lives on or in the other, feeds upon it, and usually harms it.
commensalism
A close relationship between two kinds of organisms that benefit one of the organisms while neither benefiting nor hurting the other.
mutualism
A close relationship between two or more organisms in which all organisms benefit.
food chain
The path of energy transfer from one living organism to another in an ecosystem.
food web
The overlapping food chains that link producers, consumers, and decomposers in an ecosystem.
carbon dioxide-oxygen cycle
A natural cycle in which plants and other producers use carbon dioxide and produce oxygen, and animals, plants, and other living things use oxygen and produce carbon dioxide.
cell respiration
The process of using oxygen to release energy from food.
water cycle
A continuous process in which water moves between the atmosphere and Earth's surface, including the use of water by living things.
evaporation
The process by which liquid water changes to water vapor.
condensation
The process by which a gas changes to a liquid.
protein
Organic compounds that form the structure of and control the processes that take place in living things.
nitrogen cycle
The cycle through which nitrogen changes into compounds that can be used by living things and then returns to the atmosphere.
biome
A major land ecosystem having a distinct combination of plants and animals.
tropical rain forest
A biome distinguished by lush vegetation, abundant rainfall, and plentiful sunlight.
grassland
A biome containing many grasses but few trees and having low to moderate rainfall.
desert
A biome in which plant life is not abundant and rainfall is low.
deciduous forest
A biome that contains many trees and in which rainfall is moderate.
taiga
A biome that contains many coniferous trees and which rainfall is moderate.
tundra
A biome characterized by cold tempreatures and low precipitation.
river
A freshwater ecosystem characterized by running water.
lake
A freshwater ecosystem characterized by still water.
wetland
Any one of three ecosystems-marsh, swamp, or bog- where land and fresh water meet.
shoreline
The ecosystem where land and ocean meet.
coastal ocean
A saltwater ecosystem close to the shoreline that supports an abundance of life.
open ocean
The large saltwater ecosystem containing both floating and free-swimming organisms.
biodiversity
The variety of organisms that live in Earth's many ecosystems; the variety of plants and animals that live within a particular ecosystem.
extinct
No longer living as a species.
endangered
In danger of becoming extinct.