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81 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
digestive enzyme that breaks lactose into glucose and galactose
(vasopressin) produced by pituitary gland
amount of nitrogen, sodium, potassium, phosphorus, chloride kidneys must filter
renal solute load
amount of a dietary nutrient that is actually digested/absorbed
prenatal, perinatal (around the time of birth), neonatal (1-28 days), postnatal
stages of infancy
weight, length, body composition, body proportions
increases 50% by 1 yr, can "catch up" or "lag down"
immediate loss of 6-10% body weight not uncommon, double by 4 mo, triple by 1 yr, gain is rapid but decelerates over the first year
body weight
immature (stomach is small: 10-12 ml capacity), empties in 2.5-3 hrs, small frequent feedings needed) 100% ready for CHO, least ready for protein, fat depends on specific fatt acid
infant GI tract
unable to concentrate urine, conserve water, or cope with electrolyte
immature kidneys of infants
determined by protein wastes and electrolyte concentrations
renal solute load
age when able to regulate water balance via ADH
1 mo
age when renal tubules mature
5 mo
developed by national center of health statistics (1977), based on NHANES data, two sets: birth to 36 mo and 2-20 yrs
CDC growth charts
national health and nutrition examinations survey
based on mix formula and breastfed infants, racially and ethnically diverse, bew BMI for age charts (for use over age 2) exclude VLBW-very LBW (<1500g) infants and NHANES III data for children >6
revised CDC growth charts (2000)
charts wt for age, length for age, wt for length, head circumference for age
infants, birth to 36 mo
charts wt for age, stature for age, BMI for age
children and adolescents, 2 to 20 yr
charts wt for stature
preschoolers, 2-5 yrs
<5th or >95th percentile, 85th to 95th percentile
assessment standards
formulas are similar because they are:
imitating human milk
liquid concentrate, powdered, ready to feed
forms of formulas
regulates formula composition
skim milk, casein and whey proteins
cow's milk based formula
isolated soy protein, methionine, CHO (corn syrup or sucrose), veg oil
soy-based formula
+ corn oil, + medium-chain TGs
casein-hydrosylate formulas
for infants who are allergic to soy and cow's milk. used when you have to build a formula to exactly what you need
elemental formula
failure to thrive, water intoxication (hyponatremia, irritability, coma, death
formula too diluted
obesity, hypernatremia: brain damage, gangrene, dehydration, tetany, metabolic acidosis
formula too concentrated
on demand: 8-12 times/day, every 2-4 hrs, for 20 min/feeding
feedin schedule for neonate
~6-8 times/day
feeding schedule for 2 wks to 1 mo
~5 times/day, can sleep through the night
~2 mo
3 meals + 4 milk feedings
~6 mo
iron by 4-6 mo
nutritional need
digestion, kidney function, GI tract maturity-absorption of whole proteins
physiological ability
loss of extrusion reflex, head and neck control, ability to sit up
physical ability
add foods:
one at a time
fe-fortified cereals, strained veggies, fruits, strained meats, finger foods, table foods, juice by cup
suggested order of solid food introduction
risk of allergy, risk of dehydration due to high renal solute load, risk of anemia, low in Fe, Cu, vits A, C, & E
why you can't give infants under 1 yr old cow's milk
risk of botulism spores producing toxin in body -> nerve paralysis
why you can't give infants honey & corn syrup
infants convert nitrate to nitrite b/c of low acidity of stomach
why you can't give infants raw carrots
egg whites, cow's milk, nuts, chocolate
allergy-prone foods
small grains, grapes, hot dog bits, hard candy, nuts popcorn, peanut butter
choking hazard foods
juice, soda, sweets
foods of low nutrient density
parent responsible for what to eat, infant responsible for when and how much
division of feeding responsibility for infants
pick out developmentally appropriate food, hold infant on lap, keep infant company, but don't distract, wait for infant to pay attention, let infant touch and explore food, feed at infant's speed, allow finger feeding when interested, stop when infant indicates "stop"
division of feeding responsibility-early spoon feeding
colic, spitting, "nursing bottle syndrome", allegies, infant obesity, constipation
feeding concerns
allowing sweetened liquid to pool around teeth -> decay, ear infections
"nursing bottle syndrome"
keep 3-7 days btw new foods
food allergies
not predictive of adult obesity, do not restrict fat for under 2 yr old
infant obesity
can be caused by iron supplements
check growth charts, check disease symptoms, nutrient deficiency?, deficiency of psychological interactions with parents?
poor suck, stiffening during feeding, reflux, delay of feeding behaviors
disease symptoms for failure-to-thrive
too little fat, too much juice
could cause nutrient deficiency
infants need cuddling, voices, eye contact
psychological interactions with parents
low maternal age, multiparity, maternal smoking, mall infants, soft mattresses, loose blankets, sleeping on the stomach
risks for "SIDS"
period of ____ until adolescence
slower growth
wide variations expected in rate of:
growth, body size, physical activity, and nutrient intake
once established, growth percentiles should track for:
weight and height
BMI for age should:
stay normal
wound healing, appetite, immunity, growth
do NOT restrict < 2 yo, 1-3 yo: 30-40%, 4-18 yo: 25-35%
fat nutrient needs
14g/1000 kc, increase legumes, high-fiber cereals
more common: infants, toddlers, low SES, decreased physical and mental development, decreases immune resistance
iron-deficiency anemia
2% or 1-5 yo
lead poisoning
getting adequate food in socially acceptable ways
food security
smaller body size increases risk
food safety
steadily increasing since 1970s
gestational diabetes, maternal obesity, early adiposity rebound, low SES, lower cognitive stimulation, external food restriction
predictors of overweight/obesity
taller, "older bones", earlier sexual maturity, risks for obesity consequences (chronic disease), concerns with dieting start even younger
characteristics of overweight children
cup management, finger grasp, less risk of choking
feeding skills by 2 yo
age children are able to cut foods
4 yo
like sweet, dislike bitter, single foods, mix of textures, room of temp, mild flavors, colorful, familiar, jugs and rituals are common
food preferences for children
children will eat, children are capable of self-regulating food intake, children generally react negatively to new foods but will accept them given time and exposure, parents can either support or disrupt, both dominance and neglect are harmful
division of feeding responsibility-facts
parent is responsible for what to eat, when, where
division of feeding responsibility-toddler
child responsible for how much and whether
division of feeding responsible-toddler
competitive foods
vending machines
food service
follow guidelines
food intake is better if lunch is:
after recess
DRI's for infants are:
DRI's for othe stages:
mix of AIs and RDAs