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Components of the Skeletal System
Bones and joints of the body and their associated cartilages
Functions of the skeletal system
supports and protects the body

provides a specific area for muscle attachment

assists with body movements

stores cells that produce blood cells

stores minerals and lipids
Components of the Nervous System
Brain
Spinal cord
Nerves
Special sense organs (eyes & ears)
Functions of the nervous system
regulates body activities
How does the nervous system regulate body activities?
through nerve impulses by detecting changes in the environment, interpreting that changes, and responding to the changes by bringing about muscular contractions or glandular secretions
Components of the Integumentary System
Skin and structures associated with it (hair, nails, sweat and oil glands)
Functions of the integumentary system
helps regulate body temperature

protects the body

eliminates some wastes (sweat)

helps make vitamin D

Detects sensations ( touch, pressure, pain, warmth, and cold)
Components of the Muscular System
specifically refers skeletal muscle tissue
Function of the Muscular System
Body movement

Maintains Posture

Produces heat
Components of the cardiovascular system
blood, heart and blood vessels
Function of the cardiovascular system
Heart pumps blood through blood vessels (blood carries O2 & nutrients to cells AND CO2 and waste from cells)

helps regular acidity, temperature and H2O content of body fluids

blood components help defend against disease and mend damaged blood vessels
Components of the Respiratory System
Lungs and air passageways (pharynx, larynx, trachea, and bronchial tubes)
Function of he Respiratory System
Transfer O2 from inhaled air to blood and CO2 from blood to exhaled air

Helps regulate acidity of body fluids

air through vocal cords produce sound
Components of the Endocrine System
ALL glands and tissues that produce chemical regulators of body functions aka Hormones

Thymus
Adrenal Gland
Ovary
Testis
Pineal Gland
Pituitary Gland
Thyroid Gland
Pancreas
Functions of the Endocrine System
Regulates body activities
How does the Endocrine system regular body activities?
through hormones transported by the blood vessels by the various target organs
Components of the Lymphatic System
Lymphatic fluid (lymph) and vessels

Spleen, Thymus, Lymph nodes, & Tonsils

Cells that carry out immune response (T cells, B cells, and others)
Functions of the Lymphatic System
Returns proteins to the blood

Carries lipids from gastrointestinal tract to blood

Contains sites of maturation and proliferation of B cells & T cells
Function of the B cells and T cells
Protect against disease-causing microbes
Components of the Urinary System
Kidneys
Ureters
Urinary Bladder
Urethra
Functions of the Urinary System
Produce, store, and eliminates urine

Eliminates wastes and regulates volume and chemical composition of blood

helps regulate acid-base balance of body fluids

Maintains body's mineral balance

Helps regulate red blood cell production
Components of the Digestive System
Organs of the gastrointestinal tract

Accessory digestive organs
Organs of the gastrointestinal tract are:
Mouth
Pharynx
esophagus
Stomach
Small & Large Intestines
Rectum
Anus
Accessory digestive organs are:
Organs that assist in the digestive processes

salivary glands
liver
gallbladder
pancreas
Functions of the Digestive System
Physical and chemical breakdown of food

absorbs nutrients

eliminates solid wastes
Components of the Reproductive System
Gonads and associated organs

Female: Uterine tubes, uterus, and vagina and mammary gland
Male: epididymis, ductus deferens, penis
Functions of the Reproductive System
Gonads produce gametes and release hormones

Associated organs transport and store gametes

Mammary glands produce milk
The hormones released by the gonad regulate:
reproduction and other body processes
Gonads produce gametes that:
unite to form a new organism
How many systems of the body are there?
11
Life Processes
Differentiate between living and non-living

1) Metabolism
2) Responsiveness
3) Movement
4) Growth
5) Differentiation
6) Reproduction
Autopsy
Examination and dissection of a body to determine the cause of death

ONLY DONE POST-MORTEM
What is homeostasis?
Maintaining a stable internal environment
How is homeostasis maintained?
By the feedback systems:

CNS and Endocrine systems
How does the CNS maintain homeostasis?
Through nerve impulses
How does the endocrine system maintain homeostasis?
Through hormones

ex: diabetes
--pancrease--not enough insulin
--insensitivity to glucose
Components of Homeostatic Mechanisms
1) Stimulus disrupts controlled variable
2) Receptor recognizes the change and sends message (INPUT)
3) Control center evaluates input and sends OUTPUT
4) Effector attempts to change the altered variable
Negative Feedback
Majority of homeostatic control mechanisms

OPPOSITE NOT bad!!!

reverse the change in a controlled variable, bringing it back to normal ranges

ex: High Blood Pressure is detected and then lowered to normal blood pressure
What detects blood pressure?
Aortic and Carotid arteries
Positive Feedback
FEW homeostatic control mechanisms are of this type

strengthen a change and MUST be shut down by an outside force

ex: contractions of uterus during child birth
hormonal control of ovulation
systems that control blood clotting
Disorder:
abnormality of structure/function
Disease:
Specific illness characterized by signs and symptoms
Symptoms:
subjective changes not observable from outside a person

ex: pain, headache, nausea
Signs:
Observable or measureable changes

ex: Blood pressure, ankle swelling, fever
Organized levels:
simple-->complex
atomic (chemical)
cellular
tissues
organs
systems
organism
Body Planes:

Median/Midsagittal
Divides the body into equal parts of left and right parts
Body Planes:

Transverse/Cross-sectional
Divides the body into top and bottom parts
Body Planes:

Frontal/Coronal
Divides the body into front and back parts
Body Cavities:

Cranial
FORMED BY THE CRANIAL BONES AND CONTAINS THE BRAIN
Body Cavities:

vertebral
FORMED BY THE VERTEBRAL COLUMN & CONTAINS THE SPINAL CORD & THE BEGINNINGS OF THE SPINAL NERVES

AKA: SPINAL CAVITY
Body Cavities:

thoracic
CONTAINS THE PLEURAL, PERICARDIAL, & MEDIASTINUM CAVITIES

AKA: CHEST CAVITY
Body Cavities:

Pleural Cavity
EACH SURROUNDS A LUNG

THE SEROUS MEMBRANE OF EACH PLEURAL CAVITIY IS THE PLEURA
Body Cavities:

Pericardial Cavity
SURROUNDS THE HEART

SEROUS MEMBRANE = PERICARDIUM
Body Cavities:

Mediastinum
CENTRAL POSITION OF THORACIC CAVITY BETWEEN THE LUNGS

EXTENDS FROM STERNUM TO VERTEBRAL COLUMN AND FROM NECK TO DIAPHRAGM

CONTAINS THE HEART, THYMUS, ESOPHAGUS, TRACHEA, AND SEVERAL LARGE BLOOD VESSELS
Body Cavities:

Abdominopelvic Cavity
DIVIDED INTO THE ABDOMINAL AND PELVIC CAVITIES
Body Cavities:

Abdominal Cavity
CONTAINS STOMACH, SPLEEN, LIVER, GALLBLADDER, SMALL INTESTINE, & MOST OF LARGE INTESTINE

SEROUS MEMBRANE = PERITONEUM
Body Cavities:

Pelvic Cavity
CONTAINS URINARY BLADDER, PORTIONS OF LARGE INTESTINE, & INTERNAL ORGANS OF REPRODUCTION
Abdonminopelvic Quadrants
RIGHT UPPER
LEFT UPPER
RIGHT LOWER
LEFT LOWER
Abdominopelvic Regions
RIGHT HYPOCHONDRIAC
EPIGASTRIC
LEFT HYPOCHONDRIAC

RIGHT LUMBAR
UMBILICAL
LEFT LUMBAR

RIGHT INGUINAL
HYPOGASTRIC
LEFT INGUINAL
The most complex level of the human body is the _______.
ORGANISM LEVEL
What is the term for the upper right abdominopelvic region (between the ribs)?
RIGHT HYPOCHONDRIAC REGION
Directional term:

adduction
movement toward the middle of body
Directional term:

abduction
movement away from the middle of body
Directional term:

eversion
turning outward
Directional term:

inversion
turning inward
Directional term:

extension
movement away from fetal position

straightening of a body part
Directional term:

flexion
movement toward fetal position

bending of a body part
Directional term:

pronation
the act of lying face down

turning palm downward or backward
Directional term:

supination
the act of lying face up

turning palm upward or forward
Directional term:

rotation
turning on its own axis
Directional term:

Protraction
moving a body part forward
Directional term:

retraction
moving a body part backward
Homeostasis
the state of balance in the internal environment of the body achieved by various control mechanisms
Cell Membrane Components
Phospholipid bilayer
cholesterol
proteins
attached carbohydrates
Glycolipids
attached to fat
Glycoproteins
Attached to proteins
Cell Membrane Function
"skin"

Barrier between inside and outside of cell

Transport (controls entry of materials)

Receives chemical and mechanical signals

Transmits signals between intra- and extra- cellular spaces
Intracelluar Body Fluid (ICF)
2/3 of total fluid within cells
Extracellular Fluid (ECF)
Between cells = Interstitial
In Blood Vessels = Plasma
(55% of ECF, 91.5% H2O)
(Blood Cells 45% of ECF, 99% RBC, 1% RBC and Platellets)
In lymphatic vessels = Lymphatic
Solvent
the liquid doing the dissolving

usually water
Solute
The dissolved material

particles or gas
Concentration
Amount of solute in a given amount of solvent
Concentration Gradient
Difference in concentration between 2 areas of solution
Saline Solution
NaCl
Passive Transport

AKA?
"Simple Diffusion"
Passive Transport Requirements
concentration gradient of solute present

Solute can diffuse across a membrane if membrane is present
Pathways to simple diffusion
Pass across the lipid bilayer IF lipid-soluble or IF polar molecules

Pass through ion channels, which may be gated
Lipid-soluble --simple diffusion
O2
CO2
N2
fatty acids
steroids
fat-soluble vitamins
Polar Molecules -- Passive Transport
H2O
Urea
Ions that are able to pass through ion channels for simple diffusion
K+
Ca2+
Cl-
Facilitated Diffusion
Requires a carrier IN membrane but NOT ATP, no energy required

Solute goes down concentration gradient

Maximum transport speed depends on number of carriers
Osmosis is...
diffusion of water across selectively permeable membrane

permeable to solvent
impermeable to solute
Types of solutions surrounding human Red Blood Cells
Isotonic
Hypotonic
Hypertonic
Isotonic solutions
solution outside RBC has same concentration of solute as RBC:
0.9% NaCl
Hypotonic solutions
Solution outside of RBC has lower concentration:
0% NaCl-->hemolysis
Hypertonic solutions
solution outside of RBC has higher concentration:
4% NaCl-->crenation
Crenation

aka?
Shrinkage
Hemolysis

aka?
Absorption
Active Transport Requires
1) A carrier (aka PUMP)
2) Energy (ATP)
Active Transport can transport.....
UP a concentration gradient
Active Transport is critical for....
moving important ions
Major Active Transport in most cells is.....
SODIUM POTASSIUM PUMP

(Na+/K+)
During active transport, solutes are transported ____a___________ with the use of____b_____, from an area of ___c____ concentration to an area of ____d_____ concentration
a) across plasma membranes
b) energy
c) lower
d) higher
Transport in Vesicles Requires....
ENERGY (ATP)
Transport in Vesicles involves a
small membrane sac
Endocytosis is the process of
importing materials into the cell
Phagocytosis is the process of
ingestion of particles such as bacteria into white blood cells
Pinocytosis is the
ingestion of fluid
Exocytosis is the process of
exporting materials from the cell
Cytoplasm
cell contents

includes organelles and cytosol

excludes the nucleus
Function of the Cytoskeleton
-Maintains shape of cell
-Positions organelles
-changes cell shape
Cytoskeleton includes
Microfilaments
Intermediate filaments
Microtubules
Structure of Centrosome
--two centrioles arranged perpendicular to each other
-Pericentriolar material
Centrioles are composed of:
microtubules: 9 clusters of 3 (triplets)
Pericentriolar material is composed of:
Tubulin that grows the mitotic spindle
Function of the Centrosome
moves chromosomes to ends of cell during cell division
Cilia and Flagella are specialized for...
motion
Flagellum - Structure
Single tail like structure on sperm
Flagellum - Function
Propels sperm forward in reproductive tract
Cilia - Structure
Hair-like structures in groups
Cilia - Function
found in Respiratory System to move mucus
Reason for infertility caused by sperm...
the sperm lacks a flagellum
Ribosomes are made...
within the nucleus, in the nucleolus
Ribosomes are sites of...
protein synthesis, on ER or freely within the cytoplasm
Ribosomes consist of...
ribosomal RNA and proteins
Ribosomes contain large and small...
subunits
Ribosomes can be attached to the
endoplastmic reticulum or free in the cytosol
Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER) - Structure
Network of folded membranes
Endoplasmic Reticulum - Function
Synthesis, intracellular transport
Types of ER
Rough

Smooth
Rough ER
Studded with ribosomes and are sites of protein synthesis
Smooth ER Lacks
ribosomes
Smooth ER - Functions
-Lipid synthesis
-Release of glucose in liver cells into bloodstream
-Drug detoxification (especially in liver cells)
-Storage and release of Ca2+ in muscle cells
Smooth ER in muscle cells...
are called "sarcoplasmic reticulum" or, SR.

They store and release Ca2+ in muscle cells
Golgi Complex - Structure
Flattened membranes (cisterns) with bulging edges (like stacks of pita bread)
Golgi Complex - Functions
Modify proteins --> glycoproteins and lipoproteins that

1) Become parts of plasma membranes
2) Are stored in lysosomes OR
3) Are exported by exocytosis
Lysosomes
Contain digestive enzymes
______ helps in final processes of digestion within cells
Lysosomes
______ carry out autophagy and autolysis.
Lysosomes
Autophagy is
destruction of worn out parts of cell
Autolysis is
death of old cells
Tay-Sachs
Hereditary disorder

One missing lysosomal enzyme which leads to nerve destruction
Peroxisomes are abundant in the
Liver
Peroxisomes - Function
detoxify
Proeasomes - Function
Digest unneeded or faulty proteins
Faulty proteins accumulate in brain cells in persons with
Parkinson or Alzheinmer diseases
Mitochondria - Structure
Sausage-shaped with many folded membranes and liquid matrix containing enzymes

Have some DNA and ribosomes
Cristae
a system of folded membranes
Why can mitochondria make proteins?
Because they ribosomes
Mitochondria - Function
Known as "power house of cell"-->Nutrient energy is released and trapped in ATP
Chemical reactions require
oxygen
____ are abundant in muscle, liver and kidney cells and require a lot of ATP
Mitochondria
Nucleus - Structure
Round or oval structure surrounded by nuclear envelope with nuclear pores

Contains the nucleolus
Nucleolus - Function
Makes ribosomes that pass into cytoplasm through nuclear pores
Nucleus - Function
Stores genetic material (DNA) in genes arranged in 46 chromosomes
DNA
contains information for directing protein synthesis in this cell and new cells
How many genes does the human genome have?
30,000
Protein Synthesis - 2 steps
1) Nuclear = Transcription
2) Cytoplasmic = Translation
An organism is described by....
all parts of the body functioning together
A body system is best identified by...
several related organs that have a common function
Which of the following is NOT considered to be one of the 11 major body systems?
a) Muscular
b) Skeletal
c) Nervouc
d) Urinary
e) None of the above
e) None of the above
T/F

The function of the Lymphatic System is to help fight disease by producing antibodies.
True
Which system may be composed of cartilage?
Skeletal System
When you body begins to rise in temperature, a specific system helps to regulate it. It also aids in the productions of Vitamin D. What is this system?
Integumentary System
Which of the following best describes a tissue?
a)several related organs that have a common function
b) Group of cells that work together to perform a particular fucntion
c) all parts of the body functioning together
d) a unit of matter that consists of a nucleus and electrons
e) none of the above
b) group of cells that work together to perform a particular function
Which system of the body stores minerals as well as houses cells that produce red blood cells?
Skeletal System
The system of the body that contains the brain and spinal cord and this is our bread and butter is the _______.
Nervous System
Which of the following best describes an atom?
a) Several related organs that have a common function
b) Group of cells that work together to perform a particular function
c) all parts of the body functioning together
d) a unit of matter that consists of a nucleus and electrons
e) none of the above
d) A unit of matter that consists of a nucleus and electrons
The system that contains the kidneys and the urinary bladder is what?
Urinary
What systems help to regulate the acid/base relationship?
Respiratory and Urinary
T/F

The digestive system receives food and helps to break it down.
True
T/F

Homeostasis is a condition in which the internal environment is kept within close set limits.
True
T/F

An example of negative feedback system is when your body temperature drops.
True
T/F

When the body receives a stimulus and it works in the same direction as the stimulus and pushes even further from homeostasis, this is an example of a positive feedback.
True
While you are in Africa hunting zebras, you hear a roar from a lion and he changes from the bushes toward you. Which system(s) do you want to work to help you deal with this situation?
Nervous
If you were told that oxytocin was involved in the situation, what type of feedback system would be involved?
A positive feedback system
How would one describe the anatomic position?
-Patient must be facing the observer
-Arms at their side
-Thumbs must be out
-Palms forward
This heart is __________ to the liver?

(direction)
Superior
The sternum is ____ to the heart?

(direction)
Anterior
If you are referring to an object that is below another, what is this called?
Inferior
Your biceps are ______ in reference to your wrist.
Proximal
Your left hand is ____ to your left foot.
Ipsilateral
A vertical plane that passes through the midline of the body and divides it into EQUAL right and left sides is called?
Midsaggital Plane
A plane that divides the body into anterior and posterior portions is called?
Frontal Plane
A space that lies within the body and contains internal organs is called a/an....?
Cavity
If you divide the body into superior and inferior portions parallel to the ground, what plane is this?
Horizontal plane
The thoracic cavity is divided into small cavities. Which of the following is one of those divisions?
a) abdominal cavity
b) cranial cavity
c) pericardial cavity
d) vertebral cavity
c) Pericardial cavity
The abdominopelvic cavity contains several organs. Which of the following is located there? (all that apply)
a) Urinary Bladder
b) Spleen
c) Rectum
d) Heart
e) Ureters
Urinary bladder, Spleen, Rectum, Ureters
T/F

The serous membrane is made up of two portions.
True
T/F

The serous membrane doesn't open to the exterior.
True
T/F

All cavities are lined by a serous membrane.
True
T/F

The serous membrane contains a fluid between the two portions.
True
A patient comes into your office and has a rash on her left upper quadrant. What is this an example of?
Sign
A disease that effects a limited area of the body is called?
a Local Disease
A patient comes into your office and has a change from her normal state of health?
a Disease
A patient presents to your office and complains of feeling pain and nausea. What are these examples of?
Symptoms
A patient presents to your office and has inflammation of his pericardial sac along with decreased cardiac output. What type of disease is this?
Systemic disease
A patient comes to you and complains of back pain. You take an x-ray and determine that tey have primary subluxation at L4-L5. What have you just made?
Diagnosis
What are the functions of the skeletal system?
-Stores minerals
-support the soft tissues of the body
-Aide in movement by attaching muscles
-Protects internal organs from damage
The long shaft portion of a long bone is called what?
Diaphysis
The layer that lines the medullary cavity and contains osteoprogenitor cells is called?
Endosteum
The end of a long bone is called?
Epiphysis
The area that contains the epiphyseal plate is called the?
Metaphysis
What (structure) functions in resorption of bone matrix?
Osteoclasts
What (structure) functions in building bone?
Osteoblasts
T/F

Immature bone has less cells than mature bones.
False
Spongy bone does NOT contain true _____?
osteons
In spongy bone, osteocytes lie within the ____?
Lacunae
What type of fracture is it when a bone is broken and the skin has been broken?
Compound fracture
What type of fracture is it when a bone twists apart?
Spiral fracture
A patient presents to your office and you do an x-ray on their arm. You find that the bone has a partial fracture on one side and it has bent on the other. What type of condition is this called?
Greenstick Fracture
If one end of the bone has been driven into the other, it is called....
an impacted fracture
If a bone is incompletely broken, this is called...
a partial fracture
If there is a fracture of the distal end of the radius with posterior displacement, this is called...
Colles's fracture
A patient presents to your office and has a fracture of the distal end of the fibula with injury to the distal tibial articulation. What type of fracture is this?
Pott's Fracture
When the body releases an excessive amount of calcium and phosphorus, which vitamin are you deficient of?
Vitamin D
What disease leads to irregular thickening and softening of the bones?
Paget' Disease
What condition leads to a decrease in bone mass?
Osteoporosis
When a bone is fractured and the anatomical alignment is preserved, what is this called?
Nondisplaced Fracture
Which segments of the vertebral column are so close together that they may be palpated as one?
T9-T10
What condition is a deficiency of vitamin D in children?
Rickett's
Which segment of the vertebral column is located at the iliac crest level?
L4
If you were palpating someone, which level would be the first large blade-like spinous process?
L1
While your patient is sitting up, what spinous is found at the inferior aspect of the scapula?
T7
What spinous is considered to be the vertebral prominence for 20-30% of the population?
T1
If you were palpating the cervical region, which is the last freely movable vertebra?
?????
The large bump that is on the posterior of the skull is called?
EOP

External Occipital Protubulance
The last segment of the spine is called?
Coccyx
2 characteristics of a long bone
Greater in length than width

Has one or more epiphyses
An example of a long bone:
Femur
T/F

A flat bone is composed of two layers of compact bone with a spongy layer in between two.
True
What are found in between cranial bones?
Sutural bones
A tubelike passageway running through a bone is called?
Meatus
An opening with blood vessels running through it is called...
Foramen
A depression which accommodates blood vessels or nerves is called?
a Sulcus
A small rounded process is called...
Tubercle
A smooth flat surface on a bone is called...
Facet
If you found a prominence above a condyle what would this be called?
Epicondyle
A ridge that is less prominent than a crest would be called?
?????????????
T/F

There are 22 bones in the skull
True
The sella Turcica is found on what bone?
Sphenoid Bone
The external auditory meatus is located on which bone?
Temporal Bone
The mandible is composed of...
Body, Angle, Ramus
The suture that unites the frontal and the two parietal bones is called?
Coronal suture
What suture unites the two parietal bones with the temporal bones?
Squamosal suture
What of the sutures unites the two parietal bones together?
Sagittal suture
The frontel that is found between the parietal, occipital, and temporal bones is called?
Posterolateral frontanel
What is found between the frontal and parietal bones?
Anerior Fontanel
The bone that doesn't articular with any other bone is called?
Hyoid
How many vertebrae are there before any fusion begins?
33
How many normal curves does your spine have?
4
What is considered to be a primary curve of the spinal column?
Sacral
Secondary curves develop...
after birth
Where in the spine is there no IVD?
C1-C2
What type of curve will there be in the lumbars?
Lordotic
If the laminae does not fuse by birth and you have exporsure of the spinal cord, what is this condition called?
Spina Bifida
How many ribs do you have that are considered to be FALSE ribs?
5
The glenoid cavity is located on which bone?
Scapula
The radius is located where?
lateral to the ulna
Examples of Carpal bones:
Lunate
Capitate
Pisiform
What make up the coxal bones?
ilium
Pubis
Ischium
T/F

The patella is part of the femur.
False
The greater trochanter is located on which bone?
Femur
The tibia is located where in reference to the fibula?
Medial
Transcription happens in the
Nucleus
Transcription - What happens?
RNA polymerase (enzymes) transcripes DNA into RNA
Complementary base pairs
When DNA is transcribed into RNA

C-G
G-C
T-A
A-U
Types of RNA formed from Transcription
Messenger RNA
Ribosomal RNA
Transfer RNA
Messenger RNA
mRNA

Directs synthesis of polypeptide
Ribosomal RNA
component of ribosomes
Transfer RNA
tRNA

Carries amino acids to ribosome for reaction
Translation requires
3 different RNAs

mRNA
rRNA
tRNA
Translation - mRNA
From nucleus, mRNA direct sequencing of amino acids
Translation - rRNA
from Ribosomes, are the sites of translation
Translation - tRNA
Carries the amino acids to the sites on mRNA
Steps of Translation
1) Initiator rRNA attaches to a start codon
2) Large and small ribosomal subunits join to form a functional ribosome and initiator tRNA fits into position on the ribosome
3) Anticodon of incoming tRNA pairs with next mRNA codon beside initiator tRNA
4) Amino acid on initiator tRNA forms a peptide bond with amino acid beside it.
5) tRNA leaves the ribosome; ribosome shifts by one codon; tRNA binds to newly exposed codon (Repeat 3-5)
6) Protein synthesis stops when the ribosome reaches stop codon on mRNA
Somatic Cell Division
Happens in ALL body cells, except gametes
Interphase
Period of growth and development of cell

Preparation for reproduction: DNA synthesis
Mitotic Phase
Division of nucleus

4 phases
Cytokinesis
division of cytoplasm
Prophase
Chromatin condenses into pairs of chromotids connects at centromeres

Centromeres form the mitotic cpindle that extends from pole to pole of the cell

nuclear envelope and nucleolus break down
SOME Chemotherapy drugs fight cancer cells by
inhibiting formation of the mitotic spindle during Prophase
Mitotic spindles are composed of
microtubles
Metaphase
centromeres of chromatid pairs are aligned along microtubules at the center of the metaphase plate
Metaphase plate
"equator"
Anaphase
Centromeres split, separating "sister chomatids"

Chromosomes are pulled to opposite ends of spindle by microtubules of the mitotic spindle

cytokinesis begins by the formation of the cleavage furrow
Sister chromatids

aka?
"chromosomes"
Telophase
chromosomes revert to threadlike chromatin

nuclear envelope and nucleolus reappear

Mitotic spindle breaks up

cytokinesis is completed
Because structure determines function, cells differ in structure related to their...
function
Nerve cells - structure and function
may reach several feel in length to carry nerve impulses from spinal cord to toe
Muscle cells - Structure and Function
can produce effective contractions because they are cylindrical or spindle-shaped
Intestinal cells - structure and function
Micovili increase surface area to maximize absorptive ability
Largest cells in a human
an Oocyte
Factors of aging
--genetically programmed
--decreased rate of mitosis
--telomeres
--protein damage
--free radicals damage
--Autoimmune response
How does the decrease in rate of mitosis affect aging?
Nerve cells and skeletal muscle cells cannot be replaced
Telomeres - how it affects aging
= DNA at tips of chromosomes

telomeres shorten with aging
Progeria
= rapid aging

profound telomere shortening
Protein damage dealing with aging is caused by
glucose cross-links
Bone Function
-support
-protection
-assist in movements
-mineral homeostasis
-blood cell production
-triglyceride storage
Hemopoiesis happens in
red bone marrow
Long Bones
such as thigh, leg arm, forearm, fingers and toes

longer than wide
Short bones
almost cube shaped

most wrist and ankle bones
Flat Bones
thin and extensive surface

cranial bones, sternum, ribs and scapulas
Irregular bones
Do not fit into other categories

vertebra and some facial bones
Diaphysis
shaft of long bone

made up of mostly compacted bone
Epiphysis
broad end of long bone

mostly spongy bone
Metaphysis
growth area between diaphysis and epiphysis
Articular cartilage
hyaline cartilage join of a long bone
Periosteum
fibrous covering over most of long bone
Medullary
"marrow'

Cavitiy with fat and blood cells
Endosteum
membrane lining medullary cavitiy
Matrix
Microscopic portion of the bone

25% water, 25% collagen fibers, 50% mineral salts
Cells of bone start out as...
Osteogenic cells in periosteum,

Osteogenic cells develop into OSTEOBLASTS
Osteoblasts
secrete collagen fibers

forms bone extracellular matix and become trapped in lacunae, which then they are called OSTEOCYTES
Osteocyte
Formed from a trapped osteoblast

Osteocytes maintain bone tissue
Osteoclast
are formed from MONOCYTES

Functions in resorption: Digests bone matrix for normal bone turnover
Structure of Compact Bone
--arranged in OSTEONS
--CENTRAL CANAL through center of osteon
--CONCENTRIC LAMELLAE
--LACUNAE
--CANALICULI
--PERIOSTEUM
--PERFORATING CANALS
Osteons
aka Haversian Systems

cylinders running parallel to long axis of bone
Central Canal
contains blood vessels, nerves, and lymphatics
Concentric lamellae
Layers of matrix
Lacunae
"lakes" between lamellae

contain osteocytes
Canaliculi
"little canals"

Contain extensions of osteocytes
Permit flow of ECF between central canal and lacunae
Periosteum
covers compact bone
Perforating Canals
"Volkmann's Canals"

Carry blood and lymphatic vessels and nerves from periosteum

They supply central canals and also bone marrow
Spongy Bone
NOT arranged in osteons

Irregular latticework of trabeculae

is lighter than compact bone
Spongy Bone - Trabeculae
These contain lacunae with osterocytes and canaliculi

Spaces between trabeculae may contain red bone marrow
Bone Formation - Steps
"ossification"

Initial bone development
Growth
Remodeling
Repair
Initial bone development
happens in embryo and fetus
Bone Growth
growth into adulthood
Ossification - remodeling
replacement of old bone
Ossification - Repair
if fractures occur
Mesenchyme Model
Early Connective Tissue

This initial "skeleton" model will be replaced by bone tissue beginning at 6 weeks of embryonic life
Bone Formation - methods
Intramembranous

Endochondrial
Concaliculi
"little canales"

contain extensions of osteocytes
Permit flow of EFC between central canal and lucunae
Volkmann's Canals
Carry blood and lymphatic vessels and nerves from periosteum

They supply central canals and also bone marrow
Mesenchyme Model
"Early Connective Tissue"

This initial "skeleton" model will be replaced by bone tissue beginning at 6 weeks of embryonic life
Two different methods of ossification:
Intramembranous

Endochondrial
Intramembranous
bone forms within sheets of mesenchyme that resemble membranes

Only a few bones form by this process: flat bones of the skull, lower jawbone, and part of clavicle
Types of bones that are formed by Intramembranous
Flat bones of the skull
Mandible
Clavicle
Endochondrial
Mesenchyme forms hyaline cartilage which then develops into bone

MOST bones
Steps to Intramembranous Ossification
1) development of ossification center
2) Calcification
3) Formation of trabeculae
4) Periosteum forms
Step One of
Development of ossification center

Mesenchyme celles --> Osteogenic --> Osteoblasts

Osteoblasts secrete organic matrix
Step Two of Intramembranous Ossification
Calcification: Cells become Osteocytes

In lacunae, they extend cytoplasmic processes to each other

Deposit calcium and other mineral salts
Step three of Intramembranous Ossification
Formation of trabeculae aka spongy bone

Blood vessels grow in and red marrow is formed
Step Four of Intramembranous Ossification
Periosteum covering the bone forms from mesenchyme
Endochondrial Ossification
6 Steps

1) Formation of the "bone"
2) Growth of cartilage model
3) Primary Ossification Center
4) Medullary cavity
5) Secondary Ossification Center
6) Articular cartilage and epiphyseal cartilage
Step ONE of Endochondrial Ossification
Formation of cartilage model of the "bone"

As Mesenchyme cells develop into chondroblasts
Step TWO of Endochondrial Ossification
Grow of Cartilage Model

--Cartilage "bone" grows as chondroblasts secrete cartilage matrix
--Chondrocytes increase in size, matix around them calcifies
--Chondrocytes die as they are cut off from nutrients, leaving small spaces aka Lacunae
Lacunae
Small spaces that are left when chondocytes die as they are cut off from nutrients
Step THREE of Endochondrial Ossification
Primary Ossification Center

--Perichondrium sends nutrient artery inwards into disintegrating cartilage
--Osteogenic cells in perichondrium become osteoblasts that deposit bony matrix over remnants of calcified cartilage --> Spongy bone forms in center of this model
--As perichondrium starts to form bond, the membrane is called periosteum
Step FOUR of Endochondrial Ossification
Medullary (Marrow) Cavity

--Spongy bone in center of the model growns towards ends of the model
--Oceteoclasts break down some of new spondy bone forming cavity through most of diaphysis (marrow cavity)
--Most of the wall of the diaphysis is replaced by a collar of compact bone
Step FIVE of Endochondrial Ossification
Secondary Ossification Center

--Similar to step 3 except that nutrient arteries enter ends (epiphyses) of bones and osteoblasts deposit bony matrix --> spongy bone forms in epiphyses from center outwards
--Occurs about time of birth
Step SIX of Endochondrial Ossification
Articular cartilage and epiphyseal cartilage

--Articular cartilage at ends of epiphyses become articular cartilage
-- Epiphyseal (growth) plate of cartilage remains between epiphysis and diaphysis until bone growth ceases
Steps to Bone growth in Length
1) Chondrocytes divide and grow more cartilage on epiphyseal side of the epiphyseal plate
2) Chrondrocytes on the diaphyseal side die and are replaced by bone
Bone grows from _____ side towards ______ side
Diaphyseal Side TO Epiphyseal Side
Epiphyseal Line
Cartilage in epiphyseal plate is completely replaced by bone, which creates this line

Growth in length stops between 18-25 years
Growth of bone in Thickness
As bones grow in length, they must also grown in thickness

Perichondrial osteoblasts --> Osteoblasts --> Lay down additional lamellae of compact bone

Simultaneously, osteoclasts in the endosteum destroy interior bone to increase width of the marrow
Remodeling of a Bone
Remodeling in response to use

_Resorption by osteoclasts AND
Deposition by osteoblasts
Repair of a fracture
Dead Tissue remobed
Chondroblasts --> Fibrocartilage --> Spongy bone deposited by osteoblasts --> remodeled to compact bone
Partial Fracture
Incomplete break, crack
Complete Fracture
Bone broken into two or more pieces
Closed Fracture
"simple"

Not through skin
Open Fracture
"Compound"

Broken ends break skin
Factors affecting growth of bones
--adequate minerals
--Vitamins
--Hormones
--Weight-bearing activity
Minerals that affect bone growth
Ca
P
Mg
Vitamins that affect bone growth
A
C
D
Hormones that affect bone growth
Before Puberty: hGH + insulin-like growth factors

Thyroid hormone and insulin also required

Sex hormones contribute to adolescent growth spurt
Calcium Homeostasis
Blood leves of Ca2+ controlled by NEGATIVE FEEDBACK LOOPS

Parathyroid Hormone (PTH) increases osteoclast activity + decreases loss of Ca2+ in urine

Calcitonin decreases osteoclast activity
Exercise and Bone Tissue
Bone strengthened in response to use

Bone resorbed during disuse
Examples of bone resorbed during disuse
--During prolonged bed rest
--Fracture with cast/immobilizer
--Astronauts without gravity
Divisions of the skeletal system
Axial

Appendicular
Axial Skeletal System
Bones around body axis

EX skull bones, hyoid, ribs, sternum, vertebrae
Appendicular Skeletal System
Bones of the upper and lower limbs plus shoulder and hip bones that connect them

ex: Clavivle, Humerus, Radius and Ulna, Femur
Eight Cranial Bones
Frontal, 2 parietal, 2 temporal, occipital, sphenoid, and ethmoid
14 Facial Bones
2 nasal, 2 maxilla, 2 zygomatic, 2 lacrimal, 2 palatine, 2 inferior nasal conchae, 1 mandible, 1 vomer
Sutures
Immovable joint between skull bones

Coronal, sagittal, labdoidal, squamous
Paranasal Sinuses
aka cavities

Lacated in bones near nasal cavity
Frontanels
soft spot in fetal skull

Allow deformation at birth
Calcify to form sutures
Vertebrae - Function
encloses spinal cord

supports head

Point of attachment for muscles of back, ribs, and pelvic girdle
Vertebral - Regions
7 Cervical
12 thoracic
5 Lumbar
1 Sacrum
1 Coccyx
Normal curves in column
4 Normal Curves

Cervical and Lumbar curves are convex

Thoracic and sacral curves are concave
Curves of column - function
Increase strength
Help in balance
Absorb shocks
Convex Curves of Column
Cervical and Lumbar

Bulge anteriorly
Concave curves of the column
thoracic and Sacral

Bulge posterior
Fetus has how many spinal curves?
ONE
Adult has how many spinal curves?
FOUR
Vertebrae - Stucture
Body
Vertebral arch
Seven pocesses from the vertebral arch
Body of Vertebra
disc-shaped anterior portion
Vertebral Arch
Posteriorly back from body

With the body, creates a hole called vertebral foramen
Seven processes from the vertebral arch
Transverse process extending laterally on each side

Spinous process extending dorsally

Two each of superior and inferior articular processes that form joints with vertebrae
Cervical Area
C1-C7 (from superior to inferior)

Spinous process often bifid with transverse foramina on transverse processes
C1
"atlas"

Articulates with head, specialized to support head

Lacks body and spinous process
C2
"Axis"

Has body and spinous process

Called dens "tooth" that creates a pivot for head rotation
Thoracic Vertebrae
T1-T12

Larger than cervical
Have facets for articulations with ribs
Lumbar Vertebrae
L1-L5

Largest and strongest
Spinous processes short and thick
Sacrum
S1-S5 fused into ONE unit

Foundation for pelvic girdle
Contain sacral foramina for nerves and blood vessels
Coccyx
4 coccygeal vertebrae fused into ONE
Thoracic Cage
Sternum, Costal Cartilages, Ribs and bodies of T1-T12
Sternum
forms by 3 portions fused by about age 25 years:

Manubrium, body, xiphoid process
Ribs - True - False
12 Pairs

True Ribs - #1-7; articular with sternum directly by costal cartilages

False ribs - #8-12; do NOT articulate with sternum directly by costal cartilages
Pectoral Girdle
Function: Attach bones of upper limbs to axial skeleton

Clavicles and scapulas: bilateral
Humerus
Arm Bone

--articulates with scapula (glenoid cavity) at should joint
--Articulates with radius and ulna at elbow
Ulna
Medial Bone
Radius
Lateral bone - thumb sid
Carpus
Wrist bones

8 of them
Metacarpals
5 bones of palm of hand

Number 1-5 starting with thumb
Phalanges
14 bones of fingers

numbered 1-5 metacarpals

each finger except the thumb has proximal, middle and distal phalanges; thumb LACKS middle phalanx
Pelvic Girdle
Includes TWO coxal bones
--joined anteriorly at pubic symphysis
--Posteriorly attached to sacrum at sacroiliac joint
Basin
Like pelvis, is formed by two hip bones--> Pelvic Girdle + sacrum and Coccyx
False Pelvis
"greater pelvis"

broad region superior to pelvic brim

contains abdominal organs
True Pelvis
"lesser Pelvis"

Small region inferior to pelvic brim

contains urinary bladder + internal reproductive organs
Parts of Coxal Bone
3 separate bones fused by age 23 to form a "hip bone"

Ilium
Ischium
Pubis
Ilium
Largest and most superior portion of the coxal bone
Ischium
Lower, posterior part of the coxal bone
Pubis
Lower, anterior part of the coxal bone
Acetaulum of the Coxal Bone
Ilium, Ischium, and Pubis meat at the ACETAULUM of the hip bone

"socket for head of femur"
Femur
"thigh bone"

Largest bone in the body
--articulates with hip proximally and with the tibia and patella distally
--head (fits into acetabulum) and greater trochanter at proximal end
Patella
"kneecap"

In anterior of knee joing
Tibia
"shin bone"

Large, medial, weight-bearing bone of leg
Fibula
Longest, thinnest bone in body

Lateral to tibia and smaller
does NOT articular with femur!
Tarsus
"ankle"
Has 7 bones
Large Talus
ankle bone
Calcaneous
"heel bone'
Metatarsals
"foot bones"

numbered 1-5 from medial to lateral
Phalanges
"toe bones"

Big toe has proximal and distal phalanges while others have proximal, medial and distal phalanges

Number like matatarsals from 1-5
Differences betwen Male and Female skeletal system
Males usually have heavier bones
--related to muscle size and strength

Female pelvis is wider and shallower than male
--Allows for childbirth
Aging and skeletal system:

Birth --> adolescence
More bone formed than lost
Aging and skeletal system:

young adults
Gain and loss of bone is about equal
Aging and skeletal system:

Middle age +
As levels of sex steroids decline with age:

Bone resorption > bone formation

Bones become brittle and lose calcium