Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key


Play button


Play button




Click to flip

102 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Vision - 20 feet
Vision - acuity close to adult
6 months
Vision - Limited color vision
2 months
Vision - Depth perception
4 to 6 months
Vision - Preference for human faces over other objects
2 to 5 days
Vision - Discriminate face of mother from faces of strangers
1 month
Audition - Fetus hearing sounds
last months of development
Audition - Only slightly less sensitive to sound intensity than adults
Audition - Auditory localization
Shortly after birth; disappears b/w 2 and 4 mths; reappears and improves during rest of 1st year
Audition - Distinguish b/w different voices, but also prefer sound of mother's voice
3 months
Audition - Distinguish b/w vowels "a" and "i"
Few days after birth
Audition - Distinguish b/w similar consonant sounds
By 2 or 3 months
Taste and Smell - Diff'ate b/w sweet and nonsweet tastes, def. preference for sweet liquids
Within hours after birth
Taste and Smell - Turn faces away from strong, unpleasant odors
Breast-fed infants prefer smell of mother's milk over another woman's
8 to 10 days
Pain - sensitivity to pain
At birth
Pain - sensitivity increases
During first 5 days of life
Preference for right or left hand
Not apparent until about 4 years of age, though newborns exhibit some preference
Brain atrophy
Begins age 30 with acceleration after age 60, esp. cortex, hippocampus, and locus ceruleus.
By age 90, brain is 20% smaller than age 30.
Able to raise chin from ground and turn head from side-to-side
1-3 months
Play with hands and fingers and bring objects in hand to mouth
3 months
Rolls from abdomen to back
4 months
Sits on lap and reaches and grasps
5 months
Sits alone and stands with help
6 months
First teeth appear
5 to 9 months
Sits alone without support and begins crawling or creeping
8 to 9 months
Pulls self to standing by holding furniture
9 to 10 months
Stands alone and walks with help
10 to 11 months
Takes first steps alone
12 months
Walks alone with a wide-based gait
13 to 14 months
Creeps up stairs
15 months
Scribbles spontaneously
15 months
Uses cup well
15 months
Runs clumsily
18 months
Walks up stairs with hand held
18 months
Can use a spoon
18 months
Goes up and down stairs alone
24 months
Kicks ball
24 months
Turns pages of a book
24 months
Use the toilet during the day
By 24 months, 50% of children
Jumps with both feet
30 months
Good hand-finger coordination
30 months
Rides tricycle
36 months
Dresses and undresses with simple clothing
36 months
Usually completely toilet trained
36 months
Brain is 25% of its adult weight
At birth
Brain is 80% of adult weight
2 years
Brain is at full adult weight
Age 16
Adolescent growth spurt for girls
Age 11 to 12
Adolescent growth spurt for boys
Age 13 to 14
Full stature for girls is achieved by what age?
Age 15
Full stature for boys is achieved by what age?
Age 17
Basic (hunger) cry
Angry cry
Pain cry
Fussy (irregular) cry
1 or 2 months
6 to 8 weeks
Babbling - sounds from all languages
4 months
Babbling - sounds from native language
9 to 14 months
Imitate adult speech sounds and words without understanding meaning (echolalia)
9 months
Vocalizations of sounds that resemble sentences but have no meaning (expressive jargon)
After echolalia (which is at 9 months)
1 to 2 years
Telegraphic speech - nouns, verbs, adjectives
18 to 24 months
Telegraphic speech - prepositions and pronouns added
27 months
Vocabulary is 300 to 400 words
27 months
Rapid increase in vocabulary
18 months
Fastest rate of vocabulary growth
30 to 36 months
Vocabulary is 1000 words
36 months
Sentences contain 3 or 4 words
36 months
Increasing sentence complexity, grammatical accuracy, continued vocabulary growth, 50 new words learned each month
2.5 to 5 years
Increasingly uses questions, negatives, and passive voice
2.5 to 5 years
Gain metalinguistic awareness
During early school years
Recognize that words are different from concepts they represent, and can use words in humorous and metaphoric ways
Age 6 or 7
Children refer to themselves as a "boy" or a "girl"
Age 3
Show preferences for behaviors and activities that are consistent with their gender
Even sooner than age 3
Children acquire a gender identity (i.e., recognize that they are either male or female)
Age 2 or 3
Children realize that gender identity is stable over time (gender stability): Boys grow up to be men and girls grow up to be women.
After age 3
Children understand that gender is constant over situations and know that people cannot change gender by superficially altering their external appearance or behavior (gender constancy)
Age 6 or 7
Don't understand that death is irreversible and believe that the dead retain some of the capacities they had while alive.
Ages 3 to 4
Know that death is universal and irreversible but tend to personify it, turning it into a "bogeyman" or "witch."
Ages 5 through 9
Understand that the end of life is a biological process and is not due to an outside force.
Age 10
Emit attachment behaviors indiscriminately.
First few months of life
Attachment behaviors become increasingly directed toward the primary caregiver.
6 to 7 months
Begin to demonstrate social referencing, which involves looking to a caregiver to determine how to respond in new or ambiguous situations.
6 months
Separation anxiety - severe distress when child separated from primary caregiver.
6 to 8 months, peaks in intensity 14 to 18 months, then gradually declines.
Stranger anxiety - become very anxious and fearful in the presence of a stranger, especially when a caregiver is not nearby or when caregiver does not respond positively to the stranger.
8 to 10 months, continues to age 2, then diminishes.
Friends are "playmates" (children who like each other and enjoy playing together).
Ages 4 to 7
Trust and assistance are critical aspects of friendship; believe that friends are source of help and support
Ages 8 to 10
Intimacy and loyalty become important. Friends do not "deceive, reject, or abandon you."
Age 11
Piaget's premoral stage - exhibit little (if any) concern for rules.
Before age 6
Piaget's stage of heteronomous morality (or morality of constraint) - believe rules are set by authority figures and are unalterable. When judging if act is "right" or "wrong,", they consider whether rule has been violated and what the consequences of the act are.
Age 7 to 10
Stage of autonomous morality (or morality of cooperation) - rules are arbitrary and alterable when people who are governed by them agree to change them. Focus on intention of actor than act's consequences.
Age 11
Spontaneous liars; false statements are "natural" and harmless.
Very young children
Intentionally communicate false statements.
Age 7 or 8
Recognize that they can be deceived by others.
Age 10 or 11
Some studies show children lie intentionally to avoid punishment or obtain a reward.
Age 4
Shift from preconventional to conventional level of morality
Age 10 or 11
Shift from conventional to postconventional level of morality
Late adolescence or adulthood
Believe that TV characters can see into their homes and that they can talk to TV characters.
Age 3 and 4
Understand that TV characters are actors who are playing roles.
Age 7
Commercials are there "to help entertain you"
Age 4 and 5
Understand that commercials are intended to influence viewers' buying habits.
Age 8